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Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment
Keita Sasaki, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Tomoko Ikawa, Yuko Shigeta, Shuji Shigemoto, Eriko Ando,Takumi Ogawa, Keisuke Ihara
[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19 ] [Number:1] [Pages:122] [Pages No:117-122] [No of Hits : 1004]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2223 | FREE


Introduction: Displacement of provisional fixed prostheses may result in undesirable and embarrassing outcomes in dental treatments, especially in endodontic treatment. Development of certain counter measures has been necessary to avoid such discomforts.

Aim: The aim of this report was to propose a pre-endodontic post and core technique to achieve smooth progress of the treatment.

Materials and methods: The patient was a 59-year-old male diagnosed with an infraocclusion caused by wear of his teeth. He received full mouth provisional fixed restorations for a complete oral rehabilitation. Displacement and fracture of the restorations frequently occurred during the observation period for the function of the restorations. Therefore, the pre-endodontic post and core technique was applied to the abutment teeth before their endodontic treatments were started. The technique consisted of three steps as follows: Step 1: Caries removal and dowel preparation were performed for the abutment teeth having apical periodontitis. Composite cores were indirectly fabricated, which had access holes for endodontic treatment. Step 2: The cores were bonded to the teeth. In endodontic treatment, rubber dam appliances were easily placed owing to the core, and proper tooth isolation was accomplished. Step 3: Fiberposts were bonded to the dowel holes through the access holes after the root canal filling. During endodontic treatment, displacement and/or fracture of the provisional restorations did not occur.

Conclusion: The pre-endodontic post and core technique was effective in obtaining improved retention of provisional restoration, appropriate isolation for endodontic treatment, and sufficient retention of the post and core.

Clinical significance: The pre-endodontic post and core technique is useful for avoiding the discomforts in dental treatments, namely, a smooth transition from endodontic to prosthodontic treatment can be achieved.

Keywords: Composites, Dental prosthesis, Post and core, Root canal treatment, Rubber dam.

How to cite this article: Sasaki K, Yamamoto T, Ikawa T, Shigeta Y, Shigemoto S, Ando E, Ogawa T, Ihara K. Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):117-122.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative
Ali Alrahlah
[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19 ] [Number:1] [Pages:122] [Pages No:13-19] [No of Hits : 856]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2205 | FREE


Aim: The aim was to perform comparative analysis of bioactive, contemporary bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) and conventional glass-ionomer materials for flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) in the presence of thermocycling.

Materials and methods: Five restorative materials [Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill; smart dentin replacement (SDR) Flowable Material; Bioactive restorative material (ACTIVA Bulk Fill); Ketac Universal Aplicap; and GC Fuji II] were evaluated for DTS, FS, and VHN. Half the samples in each material group were thermocycled. The DTS was performed under compressive load at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/min. The FS was assessed by three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The VHN was determined using a Vickers diamond indenter at 50 gf load for 15 seconds. Differences in FS, DTS, and VHN were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests at α = 0.05 level of significance.

Results: N-Ceram, ACTIVA, and SDR demonstrated the highest and comparable (p > 0.05) FS. The SDR had the highest DTS value (141.28 ± 0.94), followed by N-Ceram (136.61 ± 1.56) and ACTIVA (129.05 ± 1.78). Ketac had the highest VHN value before and after thermocycling.

Conclusion: ACTIVA showed mechanical properties (FS and DTS) comparable with bulk-fill resin composite materials. ACTIVA showed potential for durability, as VHN was comparable post-thermocycling.

Clinical significance: Bioactive materials showed acceptable DTS and FS values. However, hardness was compromised compared with included materials. ACTIVA Bulk Fill shows potential for dentin replacement but it needs to be covered with a surface-resistant restorative material. Further studies to improve surface characteristics of ACTIVA Bulk Fill are recommended.

Keywords: Bioactive, Bulk fill, Mechanical properties, Resin composite, Thermocycling.

How to cite this article: Alrahlah A. Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):13-19.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: Noen

Effect of Topical Honey on Mandibular Bone Defect Healing in Rats
Farhad Hajizadeh, Bahman Derakhshan, Ali Peimani, Zahra Abbasi
[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19 ] [Number:1] [Pages:122] [Pages No:47-51] [No of Hits : 615]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2210 | FREE


Aim: In medicine, honey is known for its various biological or pharmacological effects, from wound dressing to anticancerogenic and from anti-inflammatory to antibacterial activities. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of honey on healing of mandibular bone defects in a rat model.

Materials and methods: This animal study was performed on 24 wild-type Wistar rats. Following shaving, disinfection, and extraoral incision, a 2 × 2 mm defect was created at mandibular angle. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with sterile honey, while it was left unfilled in the control group. The rats were sacrificed after 2 and 4 weeks and defects were assessed histologically. The results were compared using Mann.Whitney U-test (α = 0.05).

Results: After 2 weeks, five samples of the experimental group were in mineralization phase, while all samples of the control group were in the vascularization phase (p = 0.015). After 4 weeks, the defects were filled in four samples of the experimental group, while all samples of the control group were in the mineralization stage (p = 0.002). Histomorphometric assessment revealed that the mean new bone formation in the experimental group was significantly more than the control group, both after 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.041).

Conclusion: The results showed that honey could accentuate bone healing of mandibular small defects in rats.

Clinical significance: Honey might have potential in repair of human alveolar bone defects.

Keywords: Bone regeneration, Honey, Mandible.

How to cite this article: Hajizadeh F, Derakhshan B, Peimani A, Abbasi Z. Effect of Topical Honey on Mandibular Bone Defect Healing in Rats. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):47-51.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None

Probiotics in Caries Prevention
V Naveen Kumar, Madhuram Krishnamurthy, Saravanan Poorni, Shankargouda Patil, A Thirumal Raj
[Year:2018] [Month:February] [Volume:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:122] [Pages No:123-124] [No of Hits : 542]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2224 | FREE


Past few decades have seen a significant increase in the prevalence of dental caries at a global scale. To reduce the pervasiveness of cariogenic microflora, various efforts have been undertaken. However, completely eradicating caries-associated microorganisms has been futile.1 Endogenous bacteria, such as Lactobacillus species, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus persisting in biofilms ferment carbohydrate and produce weak organic acids as by-products.

How to cite this article: Kumar VN, Krishnamurthy M, Poorni S, Patil S, Raj AT. Probiotics in Caries Prevention. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(2):123-124.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Prevalence, Location, and Size of Maxillary Sinus Septa: Computed Tomography Scan Analysis
Ferial Taleghani, Maryam Tehranchi, Shahryar Shahab, Zahra Zohri
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 3633]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1980 | FREE


Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anatomy of the maxillary sinus in relation to its position and the height of its septa, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, 300 CBCT images of maxillary sinuses of patients with posterior maxillary edentulism were evaluated. The maxillary sinus septa were evaluated in relation to their prevalence, height, and position; t-test and Mann–Whitney tests were used for the analysis of data.

Results: Sinus septa were detected in 44% of the subjects, with equal frequencies in the anterior, middle, and posterior positions. The mean height of the septa was 3.6 ± 1.56 mm.

Conclusion: In a population of Iranian subjects, in half of the cases, the sinus septa might be present in the anterior, middle, and posterior positions.

Clinical significance: In order to avoid intraoperative problems during sinus lift procedures, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the sinus, preferably with the use of CBCT.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, Dental implant, Maxillary sinus septa.

How to cite this article: Taleghani F, Tehranchi M, Shahab S, Zohri Z. Prevalence, Location, and Size of Maxillary Sinus Septa: Computed Tomography Scan Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):11-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Gummy Smile
Afnan F Al-Fouzan, Lamia S Mokeem, Reem T Al-Saqat, Maisa A Alfalah, Mana A Alharbi, Abdullah E Al-Samary
[Year:2017] [Month:June] [Volume:18 ] [Number:6] [Pages:117] [Pages No:474-478] [No of Hits : 2098]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2068 | FREE


Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections as a conservative treatment for gummy smile.

Materials and methods: An experimental in vivo study was conducted at a dermatology clinic in Riyadh in January 2016. The study included 23 female patients who ranged from 20 to 50 years and were treated with Botox injections due to excessive maxillary gingival display. The patients with short clinical crowns or long maxilla, those who were pregnant or breastfeeding, and patients with neuromuscular disorders were excluded. Patients received Botox type I, injected 3 mm lateral to the alar-fascial groove at the level of the nostril opening at the insertion of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle. Photos were taken of the patient’s smile before and after the treatment and were then uploaded to the SketchUp program to calculate improvements in gingival display. The distance from the lower margin of the upper lip to the gingival margin was calculated pre- and posttreatment. The amount of improvement was calculated as (pre-Botox treatment - post-Botox treatment/pre-Botox treatment × 100). The mean percentage of the total improvement was analyzed.

Results: A total of 23 female patients received treatment to improve their gummy smile. Improvement was clear 2 weeks after Botox injection. The mean percentage of improvement in the gingival display was 99.6%.

Conclusion: Botox type I is an effective conservative technique to improve gummy smile caused by muscular hyperfunction.

Clinical significance: Patients’ retention highly indicated that they were satisfied with the provided treatment by Botox injections. Improving the quality of life with least painful experience and immediate results was the major advantage for Botox type I.

Keywords: Botulinum toxin, Botulinum toxin type I, Experimental in vivo study, Gummy smile.

How to cite this article: Al-Fouzan AF, Mokeem LS, Al-Saqat RT, Alfalah MA, Alharbi MA, Al-Samary AE. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Gummy Smile. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(6):474-478.

Source of support: This research project was supported by a grant from the “Research Center of the Center for Female Scientific and Medical Colleges,” Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University.

Conflict of interest: None

Shaping of the Root Canal System: A Multistep Technique
Livio Gallottini
[Year:2017] [Month:September] [Volume:18 ] [Number:9] [Pages:112] [Pages No:851-855] [No of Hits : 2044]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2138 | FREE


Aim: The aim of this scientific work is to illustrate the technique of shaping the root canal system using the multistep technique.

Background: Over time, various endodontic instrumentation techniques have been put forward, from the “step-back” technique (apical-coronal) to the “crown-down” technique (coronal-apical), the “double-flared” technique, and the most recent “single-length” technique.

Technique: The multistep technique involves six steps, one of the main objectives of these being the safety of the use of mechanical instruments with a reduction in the risk that they fracture. This technique (“mixed”) provides for the use of both manual instruments in stainless steel and mechanical instruments in nickel titanium (Ni-Ti).

Conclusion: The multistep technique is based on a standardized, flexible, and clinical protocol, which can provide for a reduction in the number of endodontic passages and instruments used and, therefore, a simplification of the operating procedure depending on both the difficulty of the root canals and the competence of the operator.

Clinical significance: This technique is a technique for shaping the endodontic space that allows the set objectives of endodontic therapy to be reached in a predictable way with a reduced risk of iatrogenic complications.

Keywords: Clinical technique, Endodontic, Files, Instruments, Nickel, Preparation, Reciprocating, Root canal, Rotary, Shaping, Titanium.

How to cite this article: Gallottini L. Shaping of the Root Canal System: A Multistep Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(9):851-855.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Treatment of Extrusive Luxation in Permanent Teeth: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria.
Marina F Amaral, Melyna M de Almeida, Lorraine P de Faria, Daniela A Brandini, Wilson R Poi, Roberta Okamoto
[Year:2017] [Month:March] [Volume:18 ] [Number:3] [Pages:85] [Pages No:241-245] [No of Hits : 1758]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2024 | FREE


Introduction: Extrusive luxation is a traumatic dental injury caused by the action of oblique forces, characterized by partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket. The ideal treatment for this type of trauma involves repositioning the tooth in its socket. However, in cases where the tooth cannot be repositioned, different options may be considered, such as intentional reattachment and orthodontic intrusion. The aim is to review the literature on the extrusive luxation of permanent teeth while assessing the risks of complications for two methods of delayed treatment for extrusive luxation.

Materials and methods: An electronic search from August 2005 to August 2014 was performed by two reviewers independently, and conflicts were resolved by a third reviewer. The databases used were PubMed and Scopus; the reviewers performed a manual search of the following journals: Dental Traumatology, American Journal of Orthodontics, and Clinical Oral Investigation.

Results: After removing the duplicate studies, 328 articles were found. Out of these, 321 were rejected as not addressing the proposed research topic. In addition, five articles were excluded because apical repositioning was used for treatment. Therefore, four articles formed the basis of the study.

Conclusion: Factors, such as root formation, the degree of tooth mobility, and the presence of tooth vitality were decisive for the choice of treatment. However, both treatments were effective and showed favorable results, i.e., without periodontal and root damage.

Clinical Significance: Knowledge of the risks of complications among two methods of delayed treatment for extrusive luxation, as well as other important factors to take into consideration when choosing a treatment assists dentists in improving the prognostic.

Keywords: Extrusive luxation, Orthodontic intrusion, Reimplantation, Tooth injuries.

How to cite this article: Amaral MF, de Almeida MM, de Faria LP, Brandini DA, Poi WR, Okamoto R. Treatment of Extrusive Luxation in Permanent Teeth: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(3):241-245.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing
Mohammed M Al Moaleem, Abdulmajeed S Okshah, Ahid A Al-Shahrani, Abdulkhaliq Ali F Alshadidi, Fawzia I Shaabi, Abdulaziz H Mobark, Khurshid A Mattoo
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:23-28] [No of Hits : 1585]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1982 | FREE


Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among undergraduate medical students in the presence of khat chewing over a period of time.

Materials and methods: Totally, 186 medical college students (age ≤ 20 years) were randomly selected for the present study. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to age, under 20 and above 20 years. The study was based on Fonseca’s anamnestic index and its questionnaire, which is composed of 10 questions and classifies the severity of TMDs. The obtained data were coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for analysis using chi-square test at significance level of 5%.

Results: Most of the participants were male (68.8%) students and older than 20 years (63%). Those who reported with khat chewing comprised 31.7%. From the total samples, only 38.0% was classified as having mild TMD and 0.50% were classified as having severe TMD. Poor dental articulation, grinding of teeth, headaches, tense personalities, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking were the most common clinical findings. The mean scores showed no significant difference among gender (p ≤ 0.29) and the khat chewing (p ≤ 0.531) groups for the 10 questions. However, it showed significant difference among age groups (p ≤ 0.025).

Conclusion: The majority of subjects complained of mild TMD, while only a few cases showed a moderate TMD among different age groups. The most frequently reported dysfunctions were related to poor dental articulation and grinding of the teeth, frequent headaches, the clicking of joint, and tense personalities. No significant difference was found between gender and khat and nonkhat chewing groups.

Clinical significance: Khat chewing is a parafunctional habit and affects dental occlusion (especially cuspal wear) in terms of anterior guidance. Such alterations in occlusion are known to be one of the causative (predisposing) factors of TMD.

Keywords: Catha edulis, Dental occlusion, Fonseca’s anamnestic index, Fonseca’s questionnaire, Medical students, Saudi Arabia.

How to cite this article: Al Moaleem MM, Okshah AS, Al-ShahraniAA,AlshadidiAAF,Shaabi FI, MobarkAH, MattooKA. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):23-28.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Study on Personality Types of Dentists in different Disciplines of Dentistry
Yousef H Al-Dlaigan, Albatool S Alahmari, Sara H Almubarak, Sahar A Alateeq, Sukumaran Anil
[Year:2017] [Month:July] [Volume:18 ] [Number:7] [Pages:93] [Pages No:554-558] [No of Hits : 1450]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2083 | FREE


Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common personality type among dentists in seven selected clinical dentistry specialties using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and to compare between these different types of personalities.

Materials and methods: A survey containing the MBTI and demographic and practice questions was used to assess the personality styles of 243 dental specialists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: The results of the MBTI for 243 specialist dentists revealed, generally, a higher percentage of scoring for introversion (I) with an average of 65% than extroversion (E). The study identified 10 common personality types among these specialists: ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, ISTP, INFP, INTP, ENFP, ENTP, ENFJ, and ENTJ (extraversion-introversion (E-I), sensing-intuition (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perception (J-P)). The dominant personality type in all seven clinical specialties in dentistry was ISTJ, with an average of 54%.

Conclusion: The personality types showed variation among the seven clinical dentistry specialties. However, among these seven clinician’s specialties in dentistry, more than 50% of the individuals shared one common type of personality (ISTJ).

Clinical significance: The identification of the personality type might help in their association with coworkers, students, and patients as well as knowing the individual preferences toward different specialties in dentistry.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Personality, Psychology, Specialty choice.

How to cite this article: Al-Dlaigan YH, Alahmari AS, Almubarak SH, Alateeq SA, Anil S. Study on Personality Types of Dentists in different Disciplines of Dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(7):554-558.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

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