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VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 4 ( Fall Issue, 1999 ) > List of Articles


Four-Handed Dentistry Revisited

Betty Ladley Finkbeiner

Citation Information : Finkbeiner BL. Four-Handed Dentistry Revisited. J Contemp Dent Pract 1999; 1 (4):25-33.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-1-4-25

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-11-2004

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2000; The Author(s).


A great deal of new technology has been integrated into the modern dental office during the last several decades. However, no product can increase productivity and reduce stress and strain on the dental team as much as using the singular concept of four-handed dentistry. The research of the 1950s is undaunted in its impact on productivity. Combined with the practice of ergonomics in the workplace, this concept must be revisited by the dental profession. The young dentists of the 21st Century have had minimal exposure to true four-handed dentistry. This article, the first in a series, re-introduces the basic principles of a research-oriented concept.

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  1. E. Four-handed Dentistry in Clinical Practice, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Company, 1978.
  2. L. and Johnson C.J. Comprehensive Dental Assisting: A Clinical Approach, St. Louis, Mosby Year Book, 1995.
  3. L. Four-handed Dentistry: A handbook of clinical application and ergonomic concepts, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
  4. C. Functional Dental Assisting, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1977.
  5. C. Ergonomics and the Dental Health Care Worker. Washington, DC American Public Health Association, 1998.
  6. Four-handed dentistry manual, ed 6, Birmingham. 1990.
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