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VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 3 ( May, 2010 ) > List of Articles


The Relationship between Tobacco Smoking and Oral Colonization with Candida Species

Ziad Nawaf Al-Dwairi, Azmi Mohammad-Ghaleb Darwazeh, Abd Al-Wahab Al-Zwairi

Citation Information : Al-Dwairi ZN, Darwazeh AM, Al-Zwairi AA. The Relationship between Tobacco Smoking and Oral Colonization with Candida Species. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010; 11 (3):17-24.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-11-3-17

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-12-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; The Author(s).



The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quantitative and qualitative oral colonization of Candida species between a group of healthy tobacco smokers and a comparable group of nonsmokers, and to investigate a possible correlation between oral candidal colonization and the quantity or duration of the smoking habit.

Methods and Materials

Fifty smokers and 50 nonsmokers were included in the study. Candida species were isolated using the concentrated oral rinse (COR) technique and identified using the germ tube test and API 20 C AUX yeast identification system.


Overall candidal transmission was 84 percent. Candida species were isolated from 42 (84 percent) of the smokers and 37 (74 percent) of the nonsmokers (p>0.05). The mean CFU/ml were 333 (SD=358) and 268 (SD=332), respectively (p>0.05).


Tobacco smoking did not appear to increase oral colonization with Candida species in healthy subjects.

Clinical Significance

The effects of smoking on oral tissues and the mechanisms by which Candida proliferate intra-orally as a result of cigarette smoking warrant additional study.


Darwazeh AM, Al-Dwairi ZN, Al-Zwairi AA. The Relationship between Tobacco Smoking and Oral Colonization with Candida Species. J Contemp Dent Pract [Internet]. 2010 May; 11(3):017-024. Available from: http://www.thejcdp. com/journal/view/volume11-issue3-al_dwairi

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