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VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2012 ) > List of Articles


Effects of Toothbrushing with Fluoride Abrasive and Whitening Dentifrices on Both Unbleached and Bleached Human Enamel Surface in Terms of Roughness and Hardness: An in vitro Study

Sukran Bolay, Filiz Yalcin Cakir, Sevil Gurgan

Citation Information : Bolay S, Cakir FY, Gurgan S. Effects of Toothbrushing with Fluoride Abrasive and Whitening Dentifrices on Both Unbleached and Bleached Human Enamel Surface in Terms of Roughness and Hardness: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13 (5):584-589.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1191

Published Online: 01-02-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; The Author(s).



The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and hardness of both unbleached and bleached (opalescence; 10% carbamide peroxide) human enamel brushed with water (without dentifrice), fluoride abrasive dentifrice (Colgate Total) and whitening dentifrice (Natural White).

Materials and methods

Human enamel samples were obtained from third molars and randomly divided into five groups (n = 8): G1—Control (brushed with water without dentifrice), G2—Colgate Total (fluoride abrasive dentifrice), G3—Natural White (whitening dentifrice), G4—Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and then brushed with Colgate Total, G5— Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and then brushed with Natural White. Bleaching regimen was applied according to manufacturers’ instructions. The brushing process was performed with a modified Nyffenegger's brushing machine. Surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Microhardness testing was performed with a Brinell hardness tester.


Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, one-way ANOVA analysis and Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks tests. There were significant differences in surface roughness values for all groups, which showed an increase in roughness (p < 0.05). When the bleaching treatment combined with brushing with whitening dentifrice was performed (G5), there was a significant decrease in hardness values (p < 0.05). The other groups (G1, G2, G3, G4) showed no significant hardness differences (p > 0.05).


It was concluded that toothbrushing procedures increased the enamel surface roughness, and that bleaching regimen performed with cleaning treatment, through brushing with whitening dentifrice decreased hardness values.

Clinical significance

When applied together, bleaching and cleaning treatments may alter the enamel surface roughness and hardness values.

How to cite this article

Bolay S, Cakir FY, Gurgan S. Effects of Toothbrushing with Fluoride Abrasive and Whitening Dentifrices on Both Unbleached and Bleached Human Enamel Surface in Terms of Roughness and Hardness: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(5):584-589.

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