The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2012 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Elongated Styloid Process on Digital Panoramic Radiographs

G Roopashri, MR Vaishali, Maria Priscilla David, Muqeet Baig, Uma Shankar

Citation Information : Roopashri G, Vaishali M, David MP, Baig M, Shankar U. Evaluation of Elongated Styloid Process on Digital Panoramic Radiographs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13 (5):618-622.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1197

Published Online: 01-10-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; The Author(s).


Background and objective

The elongated styloid process may produce characteristic head and neck pain syndromes, commonly known as Eagle's syndrome. An awareness of this syndrome is important to all health practitioners involved in the diagnosis and treatment of neck and head pain. It has been estimated that 2 to 28% of the general adult population has radiographic appearance of elongated styloid process.

The objective of the study was to assess the elongation of styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs and to evaluate the prevalence of elongation according to age, sex and types.


Elongated styloid process was seen in 107 subjects out of 300 patients who were aged between 10 and 70 years old. Our study revealed that as age increased elongation of styloid process increased with female predominance. Type 1 elongation was most common than the other types of elongation. We also found that left styloids were elongated than the right with bilateral elongation.


Panoramic radiographs can show a correct picture of elongated styloid process which can confirm the diagnosis and can thus help avoid misinterpretation of the symptoms as tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal or muscular origin and hence panoramic radiography is economical and the best imaging modality to view the elongation of styloid process.

How to cite this article

Roopashri G, Vaishali MR, David MP, Baig M, Shankar U. Evaluation of Elongated Styloid Process on Digital Panoramic Radiographs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(5):618-622.

PDF Share
  1. Elongated styloid process: Further observations and a new syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol 1948;47:630-40.
  2. Eagle's syndrome: Review of literature and case report. Indian J Dent Res 2003;14:162-68.
  3. An unusually lengthy styloid process. Singapore Med J 2007;48(2):e34-36.
  4. Eagle syndrome: Case report and review of literature. Ear Nose Throat J 2008;87:631-33.
  5. Elongated styloid process–report of two rare cases. International Journal of Anatomical Variations 2010;3:100-102.
  6. Elongated and mineralized stylohyoid ligament complex: A proposed classification and report of a case of eagle's syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:527-32.
  7. Variability of the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament in panoramic radiographs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:522-26.
  8. Stylohyoid syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1981;51:215-17.
  9. The clinical significance of the elongated styloid process. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:399-404.
  10. Styloid syndrome in absence of an elongated process. Acta Otolaryngol 1968;66:347-56.
  11. Elongated styloid process syndrome: Intraoral vs external approach for styloid surgery. Laryngoscope 1985;95:976-79.
  12. The styloid process syndrome. Etiological factors and surgical management. Laryngol Otol 1977;91:279-94.
  13. Elongated styloid process: When is it really elongated. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol 2004;33:119-24.
  14. Styloid process variation. Radiologic and clinical study. Arch Otolaryngol 1970;91:460-63.
  15. Calcification of the stylohyoid ligament: Incidence and morphoquantative evaluation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;69:524-29.
  16. The evaluation of styloid process in panoramic radiographs in edentulous patients. Tr J Med Sci 1999;29:481-85.
  17. Evalution of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiograph. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 2010 Nov;20(4):261-65.
  18. Elongated styloid process: A radiographic study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2007;19(4):498-502.
  19. Eagles syndrome. An enigma to dentists. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2007;19:424-29.
  20. Mineralization of the stylohyoid-stylomandibular ligament complex. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1979;48:286-91.
  21. Clinical significance and variations of the advanced calcified styloid complex detected by a panoramic radiographs among 80-year-old subjects. Dento Maxillo Fac Radiol 2006;35:191-99.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.