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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2014 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

An in vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Varying Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Zeeshan H Ahmad, Sarah M Alkahtany, Sukumaran Anil

Citation Information : Ahmad ZH, Alkahtany SM, Anil S. An in vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Varying Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15 (4):473-481.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1565

Published Online: 01-08-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim

To evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

Materials and methods

The 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at concentrations of 0.5, 0.1, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.005 mg/ml were used to assess the cytotoxic effect on MSCs. Immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSCs) were exposed to NaOCl at 5 different concentrations. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alamarBlue assays. The cell morphology changes were assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after exposure to 2, 4, and 24 hour incubation. The ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/ AO) fluorescent stain was applied to the cells in the 8-chamber slides after they were incubated with the testing agents for 2 and 4 hours to detect live and dead cells. The observations were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.

Results

The cell viability study using MTT assay and AB assay showed significant reduction with varying concentration at 2 and 4 hours incubation period. The cell viability decreased with the higher percentage of NaOCl. The exposure time also revealed an inverse relation to the cell viability. The SEM analysis showed reduction in the number of cells and morphological alterations with 0.5 mg/ml at 2 and 4 hours compared to 0.025 mg/ml NaOCl. Destruction of the cells with structural alterations and lysis was evident under fluorescence microscope when the cells were exposed to 0.5 mg/ml NaOCl.

Conclusion

Within the limitations of this in vitro study it can be concluded that NaOCl is toxic to the human bone marrow MSCs. The cell lysis was evident with higher concentration of sodium hypochlorite. From the observations, it can be concluded that a lower concentration of NaOCl may be used as endodontic irrigant due to its cytotoxic properties. Further studies are man datory to evolve a consensus on the optimal concentration of sodium hypochlorite to be used as endodontic irrigant.

How to cite this article

Alkahtani A, Alkahtany SM, Anil S. An in vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Varying Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):473-481.


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