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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2015 ) > List of Articles


An Analysis of the Stress induced in the Periodontal Ligament during Extrusion and Rotation Movements— Part II: A Comparison of Linear vs Nonlinear FEM Study

HP Raghuveer, M Hemanth, MS Rani, Chathura Hegde, B Vedavathi, D Chaithra

Citation Information : Raghuveer H, Hemanth M, Rani M, Hegde C, Vedavathi B, Chaithra D. An Analysis of the Stress induced in the Periodontal Ligament during Extrusion and Rotation Movements— Part II: A Comparison of Linear vs Nonlinear FEM Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015; 16 (10):819-823.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1763

Published Online: 01-03-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).



Optimal orthodontic forces are those which stimulate tooth movement with minimal biological trauma to the tooth, periodontal ligament (PDL) during and alveolar bone. Among various types of tooth movements, extrusion and rotational movements are seen to be associated with the least amount of root resorption and have not been studied in detail. The mechanical behavior of the PDL is known to be nonlinear elastic and thus a nonlinear simulation of the PDL provides precision to the calculated stress values. Therefore in this study, the stress patterns in the PDL were evaluated with extrusion and rotational movements using the nonlinear finite element method (FEM).

Materials and methods

A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using SOLIDWORKS modelling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated with extrusive and rotational movements by a 3D FEM using ANSYS software with nonlinear material properties.


It was observed that with the application of extrusive load, the tensile stresses were seen at the apex whereas the compressive stress was distributed at the cervical margin. With the application of rotational movements, maximum compressi vstress was distributed at the apex and cervical third whereas the tensile stress was distributed on cervical third of the PDL on the lingual surface.


For rotational and extrusion movements, stress values over the periodontal ligament was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, with a given force system by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement using nonlinear properties. During rotation there are stresses concentrated at the apex, hence due to the concentration of the compressive forces at the apex a clinician must avoid placing heavy stresses during tooth movement.

How to cite this article

Hemanth M, Raghuveer HP, Rani MS, Hegde C, Kabbur KJ, Chaithra D, Vedavathi B. An Analysis of the Stress Induced in the Periodontal Ligament during Extrusion and Rotation Movements—Part II: A Comparison of vs Nonlinear FEM Linear Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015; 16(10):819-823.

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