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VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2015 ) > List of Articles


Efficacy of Oral Exfoliative Cytology in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Light Microscopic and Confocal Microscopic Study

Deepika Gopal, N Malathi, B Thirupathi Reddy

Citation Information : Gopal D, Malathi N, Reddy BT. Efficacy of Oral Exfoliative Cytology in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Light Microscopic and Confocal Microscopic Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015; 16 (3):215-221.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1664

Published Online: 01-08-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).



Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global problem. By monitoring the health status of these individuals, diabetic complications can be prevented. We aimed to analyze alterations in the morphology and cytomorphometry of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients using oral exfoliative cytology technique and determine its importance in public health screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods

The study was carried out in 100 type 2 DM patients and 30 healthy individuals. Smears were taken from the right buccal mucosa and stained by the Papanicolaou technique. Staining with Acridine orange was carried out to view qualitative changes with confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM-510 Meta). The cytomorphometry was evaluated using IMAGE PRO PLUS 5.5 software with Evolution LC camera. All findings were statistically analyzed.


The results showed that with increase in fasting plasma glucose levels, there is significant increase in nuclear area, decrease in cytoplasmic area, and increase in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio (p < 0.05) when compared to the control group. Various qualitative changes were noted, such as cell degeneration, micronuclei, binucleation, intracytoplasmic inclusion, candida and keratinization.


In the present study, we found significant alterations in the cytomorphometry and cytomorphology of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients. This study supports and extends the view that these cellular changes can alert the clinician to the possibility of diabetes and aid in monitoring of diabetes throughout the lifetime of the patient.

How to cite this article

Gopal D, Malathi N, Reddy BT. Efficacy of Oral Exfoliative Cytology in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Light Microscopic and Confocal Microscopic Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(3):215-221.

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