The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study

Citation Information : Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17 (10):791-794.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1932

Published Online: 01-02-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.

Materials and methods

Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency. Agar well diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial efficacy with saline as control. The zone of inhibition was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically with the help of IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics version 20 using analysis of variance test.


All the three medicaments showed well-defined and comparable zones of inhibition around their respective wells. All values were significantly higher than the control group. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between zone diameters of chlorhexidine, neem leaf extract, and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis (p < 0.05).


From the present study, it can be concluded that neem leaf extract shows comparable zones of inhibition with that of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

Clinical significance

Neem leaf extract has significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and thus opens the perspectives for the use of neem extract as an intracanal medication.

How to cite this article

Mustafa M. Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):791-794.

PDF Share
  1. Microbial ecosystem analysis in root canal infections refractory to endodontic treatment. J Endod 2016 Aug;42(8):1239-1245.
  2. In vivo quantitative evaluation of live and dead bacteria in root canal infection by using propidium monoazide with real-time PCR. J Endod 2013 Nov;39(11):1359-1363.
  3. Discuss the role of microorganisms in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periapical disease. Aust Endod J 2016 Aug;42(2):53-59.
  4. The antimicrobial effect of various endodontic sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990 Dec;70(6):784-790.
  5. Comparison of the effectiveness of three irrigation techniques in reducing intracanal Enterococcus faecalis populations: an in vitro study. J Endod 2009 Oct;35(10):1422-1427.
  6. Comparative safety of various intracanal irrigation systems. J Endod 2009 Apr;35(4):545-549.
  7. Comparison of debris removal with three different irrigation techniques. J Endod 2011 Sep;37(9):1301-1305.
  8. Enterococcus faecalis: its role in root canal treatment failure and current concepts in retreatment. J Endod 2006 Feb;32(2):93-98.
  9. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine. Braz Oral Res 2013 Mar-Apr;27(2):109-115.
  10. Comprehensive analysis of secondary dental root canal infections: a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches reveals new insights. PLoS One 2012 Nov;7(11):e49576.
  11. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis. Int J Oral Sci 2012 Mar;4(1):19-23.
  12. Characterization of virulence factors and clonal diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from treated dental root canals. Res Microbiol 2011 Feb-Mar;162(2):151-158.
  13. Reduction in Enteroccocus faecalis counts – a comparison between rotary and reciprocating systems. Int Endod J 2014 Apr;47(4):380-386.
  14. On the use of certain antiseptic substances in the treatment of infected wounds. Br Med J 1915 Aug;2(2852):318-320.
  15. The effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine on cultured human periodontal ligament cells. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001 Oct;92(4):446-450.
  16. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on nickel-titanium Lightspeed instruments. Int Endod J 1998 Jul;31(4):290-294.
  17. Reduction of intracanal bacteria using nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and various medications. J Endod 2000 Dec;26(12):751-755.
  18. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: an in vitro study. Eur J Dent 2014 Apr;8(2):172-177.
  19. Antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi and 2% CHX on multispecies dentinal biofilm. J Conserv Dent 2015 Nov-Dec;18(6):461-466.
  20. An in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts and comparison of their activity with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Indian J Dent Res 2015 Sep-Oct;26(5):524-527.
  21. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: an in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013 Nov;16(6):532-535.
  22. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 2005 Mar;5(2):149-156.
  23. Antimicrobial efficacy of endodontic irrigants from Azadirachta indica: an in vitro study. Acta Odontol Scand 2013 Nov;71(6):1594-1598.
  24. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: a preliminary study. J Conserv Dent 2014 Mar;17(2):133-137.
  25. Effect of methanolic extract of Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) on ovarian histology and hormonal milleu. Nig Q J Hosp Med 2008 Oct-Dec;18(4):194-197.
  26. Evaluation of antibacterial and anticandidial efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic extract of neem (Azadirachta indica): an in vitro study. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011;2:230-235.
  27. Root canal microbiota of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. J Clin Microbiol 2008 Nov;46(11):3599-3606.
  28. Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int Endod J 1997 Sep;30(5):297-306.
  29. Taxonomy, ecology, and pathogenicity of the root canal flora. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994 Oct;78(4):522-530.
  30. Bacteria recovered from teeth with apical periodontitis after antimicrobial endodontic treatment. Int Endod J 2003 Jul;36(7):500-508.
  31. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006 May;32(5):389-398.
  32. In vitro antimicrobial activity of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis. Int Endod J 2001 Sep;34(6):424-428.
  33. Natural therapeutic options in endodontics – a review. Open Dent J 2016 May;10:214-226.
  34. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Curr Sci 2002 Jun;82(11):1336-1345.
  35. Comparative study of the antimicrobial efficiency of neem leaf extract, sodium hypochlorite and biopure MTAD – an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Adv 2012;4(1):740-743.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.