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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Apical Extrusion of Intracanal Bacteria following use of Two Engine-driven Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study

Niyaz Mohammed, MC Noushad, Biji Balan, N Dhanesh, Vanita D Revankar

Citation Information : Mohammed N, Noushad M, Balan B, Dhanesh N, Revankar VD. Apical Extrusion of Intracanal Bacteria following use of Two Engine-driven Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17 (11):939-942.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1958

Published Online: 01-04-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the amount of debris extruded apically from extracted teeth, using Twisted files and ProTaper rotary during two different instrumentation systems.

Materials and methods

Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth in experimental groups were instrumented until reaching the working length with ProTaper rotary instruments and Twisted files with XSmart and XSmart Dual groups. Debris extruded from the apical foramen was collected into glass vials and the amount of bacteria was calculated. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U tests, with p = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance.


The XSmart Dual group extruded comparatively lesser bacteria compared to the XSmart group. Lesser amount of bacterial extrusion was seen when Twisted files were used compared to the ProTaper files (p < 0.05).


Under the circumstances of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that all instrumentation techniques produced measurable apical extrusion of debris. So, it is upon the practitioner to decide which system best fits their individual needs and their level of skill and experience that will provide the best possible endodontic care for our patients.

Clinical significance

The newer instrument designs, including noncutting tips, different cross sections, radial lands, and variable tapers, are better for the clinicians to improve working safety, to reduce the working time, and to create a greater flare within the preparations.

How to cite this article

Mohammed N, Noushad MC, Balan B, Dhanesh N, Jayasheelan N, Revankar VD. Apical Extrusion of Intracanal Bacteria following use of Two Engine-driven Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(11):939-942.

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