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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2016 ) > List of Articles


A Radiographic Classification for Retrograde Peri-implantitis

AB Tarun Kumar, Dhoom Singh Mehta

Citation Information : Kumar AT, Mehta DS. A Radiographic Classification for Retrograde Peri-implantitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17 (4):313-321.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1847

Published Online: 01-09-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



Retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI) is an inflammatory disease that affects the apical part of an osseointegrated implant, while the coronal portion of the implant sustains a normal bone-to-implant interface. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for implantologists. There is lack of a standard classification system and a definite treatment algorithm for the same. This article aims to introduce a classification system for RPI based on the radiographic amount of bone loss around an implant apex.

Materials and methods

A search of PubMed database was conducted with the keywords “retrograde peri-implantitis” and “implant periapical lesion.” Preoperative intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiographs of implants with RPI in case reports/case series were compiled. A total of 54 IOPAs from 36 articles were compiled and were assessed.


Three different classes were proposed. The amount of bone loss from the apex of the implant to the most coronal part of radiolucency was calculated as a percentage of the total implant length and classified into one of the three classes: Mild, moderate, and advanced. Treatment options and prognosis have been suggested for each class.


The proposed classification may allow for an easy and reproducible radiographic assessment of the RPI lesion and may serve as a guideline to prognosis and treatment planning.

How to cite this article

Shah R, Thomas R, Kumar ABT, Mehta DS. A Radiographic Classification for Retrograde Periimplantitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(4):313-321.

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