The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 1 ( January, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Influence of Age on Factors associated with Peri-implant Bone Loss after Prosthetic Rehabilitation over Osseointegrated Implants

Adilson Luiz Ramos, Igor FP Lima, Max D Costa, Ângelo JG Bós

Citation Information : Ramos AL, Lima IF, Costa MD, Bós ÂJ. Influence of Age on Factors associated with Peri-implant Bone Loss after Prosthetic Rehabilitation over Osseointegrated Implants. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (1):3-10.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1979

Published Online: 01-05-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



To verify the influence of age on factors associated with peri-implant bone loss after prosthetic rehabilitation over osseointegrated implants.

Materials and methods

This is an analytical, observational, and longitudinal study with initial 23 participants. Patients presenting with osseointegrated implants with their respective prostheses installed were included, and they could be carriers of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and systemic arterial hypertension. Thus, 18 participants with 57 implants were selected and followed up from 2009 to 2013. For statistical analysis, chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for the association of systemic conditions and bone loss. Student's t-test was used for mean comparisons of age and number of total upper and lower implants.


The average age of the sample studied was 71.05 years (65–80). The average implant per person was 3.2. Smoking had an influence on both mesial and distal bone loss, and the latter was significant (p = 0.0370). The association between bone loss and gender was also significant (p < 0.05). Moreover, male gender and upper implants were factors significantly associated with bone loss. The systemic conditions, when isolated, did not have significant influence on implant survival.


Age is not a factor that, alone, contraindicates implant-rehabilitating therapy. On the contrary, smoking has a significant influence on dental implant survival. Systemic diseases, such as osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases, when controlled, are not contraindication factors.

Clinical significance

This study is relevant for assessing peri-implant bone loss in elderly patients, right after implant installation and over time. Therefore, it was possible to verify that age is not a limiting factor for this procedure. Controlled systemic diseases do not contraindicate implant installation, but smoking is a factor that affects implant survival.

How to cite this article

Pedro REL, De Carli JP, Linden MSS, Lima IFP, Paranhos LR, Costa MD, Bós ÂJG. Influence of Age on Factors associated with Peri-implant Bone Loss after Prosthetic Rehabilitation over Osseointegrated Implants. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):3-10.

PDF Share
  1. Oral health status of the elderly in a residential home in Turkey. Gerodontology 2007 Mar;24(1):22-29.
  2. Root caries patterns and risk factors of middle-aged and elderly people in China. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009 Jun;37(3):260-266.
  3. A transição da estrutura etária da população brasileira na primeira metade do século XXI. Cad Saude Publica 2008 Mar;24(3):597-605.
  4. Masticatory function and patient satisfaction with implant-supported mandibular overdentures: a prospective 5-year study. Int J Prosthodont 2002 Nov-Dec;15(6):575-581.
  5. Prótese total sobre implante: técnicas contemporâneas e satisfação do paciente [Complete dentures prosthesis in implants: contemporary techniques and satisfaction]. Int J Dent 2008 Aug;7(1):50-62.
  6. Success criteria in implant dentistry: a systematic review. J Dent Res 2012 Mar;91(3):242-248.
  7. Dental implants in patients with osteoporosis: a clinical reality? J Craniofac Surg 2011 May;22(3):1111-1113.
  8. Fatores locais e sistêmicos relacionados aos pacientes que podem afetar a osseointegração. Rev Gaúcha Odontol 2011 Jun;59:133-146.
  9. Mini nutritional assessment [Internet]; [cited 2016 Jun 25]. Available from:
  10. Food selection and perceptions of chewing ability following provision of implant and conventional prostheses in complete denture wearers. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002 Jun;13(3):320-326.
  11. The effect of aging on the healing of hydroxylapatite implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jan;51(1):51-56.
  12. Osseointegration of oral implants in older and younger adults. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1998 Jul-Aug;13(4):492-499.
  13. A study on the relationship between job stress and nicotine dependence in Korean workers. Ann Occup Environ Med 2016 Jun;28:27.
  14. Is old age a risk factor for dental implants? Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2009 May;45(1):59-64.
  15. The decrease in bone mass associated with aging and menopause. J Prosthet Dent 1998 Jan;79(1):14-16.
  16. Changes in bone mineral density with age in men and women: a longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int 2002;13(2):105-112.
  17. Engendering health: a social constructionist examination of men's health beliefs and behaviours. Psychol Men Masc 2000 Jan;1(1):4-15.
  18. Masculinity scripts, presenting concerns, and help seeking: implications for practice and training. Prof Psychol Res Pr 2003 Apr;34(2):123-131.
  19. Systemic effects of smoking. Chest J 2007 May;131(5):1557-1566.
  20. Smoking, chronic wound healing, and implications for evidence-based practice. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2014 Sep-Oct;41(5):415-423.
  21. Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review. Ann Surg 2012; 255(6):1069-1079.
  22. The effect of cigarette smoking habits on the outcome of dental implant treatment. PeerJ 2014 Sep;2:e546.
  23. Risk factors in implant dentistry: simplified clinical analysis for predictable treatment. 2nd ed. Chicago: Quintessence Pub Co; 2008. p. 1-18.
  24. Systemic conditions and treatments as risks for implant therapy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2009;(Suppl 24):12-27.
  25. Implants in the medically compromised patient. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003 Jul;14(4):305-316.
  26. Dental implants in the medically compromised patient. J Dent 2013 Mar;41(3):195-206.
  27. Effect of osteoporotic status on the survival of titanium dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008 Sep-Oct;23(5):905-910.
  28. Comparative study of axial and femoral bone mineral density and parameters of mandibular bone quality in patients receiving dental implants. Osteoporos Int 2007 May;18(5):703-709.
  29. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003 May;289(19):2560-2572.
  30. Heritability of blood pressure and hemodynamics in African- and European-American youth. Hypertension 2003 Jun;41(6):1196-1201.
  31. The psychosocial determinants of hypertension. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2003 Feb;13(1):52-59.
  32. The relative impact of local and endogenous patient-related factors on implant failure up to the abutment stage. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002 Dec;13(6):617-622.
  33. Dental implant failure rates and associated risk factors. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005 Jul-Aug;20(4):569-577.
  34. Implant prosthodontics in medically challenged patients: the University of Toronto experience. J Can Dent Assoc 2002 Feb;68(2):103-108.
  35. Radiological assessment of peri-implant bone loss: a 12-month retrospective study. J Clin Exp Dent 2011;3(5):430-434.
  36. Pilot study on the influence of nutritional counselling and implant therapy on the nutritional status in dentally compromised patients. PLoS One 2016 Jan;11(1):e0147193.
  37. Tooth loss, chewing ability and quality of life. Qual Life Res 2008 Mar;17(2):227-235.
  38. Food choice by older people: the use of semi-structured interviews with open and closed questions. Gerodontology 2000 Jul;17(1):25-32.
  39. Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010 Oct;8:118.
  40. The effects of mandibular two-implant overdentures on nutrition in elderly edentulous individuals. J Dent Res 2003 Jan;82(1):53-58.
  41. Masseter muscle thickness, chewing efficiency and bite force in edentulous patients with fixed and removable implant-supported prostheses: a cross-sectional multicenter study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 Feb;23(2):144-150.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.