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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 1 ( January, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis

Sudarshan Pujari, Krishna P Biswas, Aravind Tatikonda, N Sudheep, Padam Singh

Citation Information : Pujari S, Biswas KP, Tatikonda A, Sudheep N, Singh P. Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (1):44-48.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1986

Published Online: 01-05-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



Apical periodontitis usually results from bacterial accumulation and contamination occurring in the root-canal system, and extending beyond the apical foramen to involve the periapical tissues. Literature has a paucity of the studies that stress on the division and analysis of the pulp canal segments. The reason for this disparity might be the technique used for collecting the samples from the pulp canals. Hence, we carried out the present study to evaluate the microbial flora in the apical part of the roots with necrotic pulp canals.

Materials and methods

The present study included the assessment of 40 freshly extracted teeth that had necrotized pulpal tissue along with the presence of periapical periodontal lesions. Removal of the soft tissue lesions attached to the root portion of the teeth along with apical periodontal lesions was done with the help of scalpel blade, after rinsing them with a sterile solution of saline. Thorough cleaning of the root surfaces was done with hydrogen peroxide followed by rapid disinfection with the help of sodium hypochlorite at varying concentrations. Sectioning of the root portion of all the specimens with the help of a disk was done perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth at a distance of roughly 5 to 6 mm from the teeth's apicalmost point. Cryotubes were used for transferring the specimens of apical portions containing 1 mL of buffer and were subjected to immediate frozen processing at a temperature of –20°C. A 10 K-type file was used for the initial collection of the samples followed by subsequent incubation of the files and paper pints in the incubation cabinet. Subsequent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from the samples was done following the procedure described by Siqueira et al. Paster et al's modification of the reverse-capture checkerboard assay was used in the present study. Semiquantitative data were used for overcoming the difficulties arising due to obtaining the counts of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of specimens.


A positive result for the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene primer was observed only in two examined specimens of all the samples of the apical portion of the root canals in the present study. Negative result was shown by all the control group specimens, which were sterile samples. Presence of bacteria was confirmed by PCR in 38 out of 40 examined specimens. Amount of bacterial taxa, out of these 24 samples, ranged up to 6. Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Dialister oral species, Bacteroidetes species, Streptococcus species, Olsenella uli, Synergistes species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Treponema denticola, and Filifactor alocis were the specific species detected. Bacteroidetes species was the only species that were detected at levels at or above 105. Heavy bacterial infections were noticed in more than 45% of the cases at the periradicular part of the root canals.


Microbial flora of the apical segment of the root with necrotized pulp tissue comprises a vast variety of pathogenic bacteria.

Clinical significance

For better prognosis of the treatment of such cases, adequate knowledge of the microbial flora of the root, especially the apical portion is necessary.

How to cite this article

Tatikonda A, Sudheep N, Biswas KP, Gowtham K, Pujari S, Singh P. Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):44-48.

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