The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mir FA Quadri, Bassam M Hakami, Asma AA Hezam, Raed Y Hakami, Fadwa A Saadi, Layla M Ageeli, Wafqah H Alsagoor, Mohammad A Faqeeh, Mohammed A Dhae

Citation Information : Quadri MF, Hakami BM, Hezam AA, Hakami RY, Saadi FA, Ageeli LM, Alsagoor WH, Faqeeh MA, Dhae MA. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (4):277-282.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2031

Published Online: 01-04-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Objective

To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study with multistaged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended “decayed and filled teeth”/“decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)” method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m2) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results

A total of 360 children were part of this study with equal recruitment from both genders. The mean dft/DMFT value for girls (2.52) was more than that for boys (1.88); and the (p = 0.00) calculated value was statistically significant. Most of the children had normal BMI-for-age (60.6%) and very few were obese (4.7%). Dental caries, fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p < 0.05). Dental caries was a strong predictor, and the analysis showed that children with untreated caries had 81% (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval = 0.65, 0.58) higher chance of suffering from low BMI.

Conclusion

To conclude, this is the first study attempted to see the relationship between BMI-for-age and dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Negative relation between dental caries and BMI should warrant health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children.

Clinical significance

High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.

How to cite this article

Quadri MFA, Hakami BM, Hezam AAA, Hakami RY, Saadi FA, Ageeli LM, Alsagoor WH, Faqeeh MA, Dhae MA. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(4):277-282.


PDF Share
  1. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent 2009 Feb;22(1):3-8.
  2. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 2005 Sep;83(9):661-669.
  3. Dental caries prevalence in 6-7 year old school children in Riyadh region: a comparative study with the 1987 oral health survey of Saudi Arabia Phase I. Saudi Dent J 2004 May-Aug;16(2):54-60.
  4. Dental caries, sugar consumption and restorative dental care in 12-13-year-old children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1992 Dec;20(6):343-346.
  5. Oral hygiene practices, dental knowledge, dietary habits and their relation to caries among male primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Int J Dent Hyg 2008 Nov;6(4):361-370.
  6. A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 2013 Jan;25(1):3-11.
  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of sweet food and beverage consumption and its association with dental caries among school children in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 2015 Sep;21(6):403-411.
  8. Prevalence and trends of childhood obesity. In: Crawford D, Jeffrey R, Ball K, Brug J, editors. Obesity epidemiology. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 2.
  9. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Technical Report Series 894. Geneva: WHO; 2000. p. 100-142.
  10. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Aff (Millwood) 2002 Mar-Apr;21(2):245-253.
  11. Obesity: an emerging problem in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of data from the National Nutrition Survey. East Mediterr Health J 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):441-448.
  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Ann Saudi Med 2010 May-Jun;30(3):203-208.
  13. Country Cooperation Strategy for WHO and Saudi Arabia 2006-2011. Cario: Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; 2011. p. 8-45.
  14. Preschooler obesity and parenting styles of mothers and fathers: Australian national population study. Pediatrics 2007 Dec;120(6):e1520-e1527.
  15. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011. Syst Rev 2012 Nov;1:57.
  16. Caries experience in a severely obese adolescent population. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007 Sep;17(5):358-363.
  17. Obesity and dental caries in paediatric patients. A cross-sectional study. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2011 Jun;12(2):112-116.
  18. Dental caries and body mass index by socio-economic status in Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008 Oct;36(5):459-465.
  19. Prevalence of dental decay in elementary school children and association with nutritional status. Rev Chil Pediatr 2010 Dec;81(1):28-36.
  20. Clustering of obesity and dental health with lifestyle factors among Turkish and Finnish pre-adolescents. Obes Facts 2008 Aug;1(4):196-202.
  21. Interrelation between obesity, oral health and life-style factors among Turkish school children. Clin Oral Investig 2011 Apr;15(2):177-184.
  22. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low body mass index in 12-year-old Filipino children. BMC Public Health 2011 Jul;11:558.
  23. Dietary and social characteristics of children with severe tooth decay. Scott Med J 2006;51:26-29.
  24. Associations between height, body mass, and frequency of decayed, extracted, and filled deciduous teeth among two cohorts of Taiwanese first graders. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009 Sep;140(1):113-119.
  25. Caries status of school children in Jazan city, KSA and its relation with dental literacy of their parents. J Oral Health Res 2014 Jan;5(1):1-6.
  26. Oral health survey: basic methods. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.
  27. Dental caries index. In: Preventive and community dentistry: clinical record book. India: Jaypee; 2006. p. 24-25.
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basics about childhood obesity. 2013 [cited 2013 May 04]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html.
  29. The relationship between childhood weight, dental caries and eating practices in children aged 4-8 years in Australia, 2004-2008. Pediatr Obes 2012 Dec;7(6):461-470.
  30. Obesity in Saudi children: a dangerous reality. East Mediterr Health J 2010 Sep;16(9):1003-1008.
  31. Salivary carriage of Candida species in relation to dental caries in a population of Saudi Arabian primary school children. Saudi J Dent Res 2014 Jul;6(1):54-59.
  32. Caries and associated factors in a group of Swedish children 2-3 years of age. Swed Dent J 2006 Jan;30(4):137-146.
  33. Oral health inequalities in preschool children in North-Eastern Italy as reflected by caries prevalence. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2007 Mar;8(1):13-18.
  34. Pre-valence pattern of dental caries in the primary dentition among school children. Indian J Dent Res 2005 Oct-Dec;16(4):140-146.
  35. Dental caries experience and factors among preschoolers in southeastern México: a brief communication. J Public Health Dent 2006 Spring;66(2):88-91.
  36. Caries in preschool children and its risk factors in 2 provinces in China. Quintessence Int 2007 Mar;38(2):143-151.
  37. Caries status and overweight in 2- to 18-year-old US children: findings from national surveys. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008 Apr;36(2):157-167.
  38. Dietary and social characteristics of children with severe tooth decay. Scott Med J 2006 Aug;51(3):26-29.
  39. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2009 Mar;40(2):338-344.
  40. Exploring the association of dental caries with social factors and nutritional status in Brazilian preschool children. Eur J Oral Sci 2008 Feb;116(1):37-43.
  41. Dental caries, tooth eruption timing and obesity: a longitudinal study in a group of Mexican school children. Acta Odontol Scand 2010 Jan;68(1):57-64.
  42. Relationship between body mass index, caries experience and dietary preferences in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2009 Fall;34(1):49-52.
  43. Body adiposity status in teenagers and snacking habits in early childhood in relation to approximal caries at 15 years of age. Int J Paediatr Dent 2008 May;18(3):189-196.
  44. ; Best, N. Geographic patterns of disease. In: Encyclopedia of biostatistics. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publications; 2002.
  45. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico. Cad Saude Publica 2013 Jul;29(7):1407-1414.
  46. Prevalence, severity and related factors of dental caries in school going children of Vadodara city – an epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health 2013 Aug;5(4):35-39.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.