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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 6 ( June, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Influence of Hand Instrumentation and Ultrasonic Scaling on the Microleakage of various Cervical Restorations: An in vitro Study

Mehrdad Barekatain, Bita Rohani, Shirin Z Farhad, Navid Haghayegh

Citation Information : Barekatain M, Rohani B, Farhad SZ, Haghayegh N. Influence of Hand Instrumentation and Ultrasonic Scaling on the Microleakage of various Cervical Restorations: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (6):437-442.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2061

Published Online: 01-09-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



In cervical lesions, various restorative materials can be inserted, which can be affected by the application of periodontal scalers. This study evaluated and compared the marginal seal of class V glass ionomer, composite resin, and amalgam restorations after subjecting them to hand instrumentation and ultrasonic scaling.

Materials and methods

In this experimental study, 30 sound human first premolars were selected. In each tooth, buccal and lingual cavities (4 mm mesiodistal width, 3 mm occlusogingival height, and 2 mm depth) were made. The teeth were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 teeth: (1) Glass ionomer group, (2) composite group, and (3) amalgam group. Teeth were subjected to thermocycling procedure for 1,000 cycles between 5 and 55°C water baths and a 1-minute dwell time. Then, each group was randomly subdivided: (1) Margins of 30 restorations were exposed to hand instrumentation procedures by applying 10 working strokes, (2) margins of 30 restorations were exposed to a periodontal tip mounted on a piezoelectric ultrasonic handpiece working at 25 kHz for 10 seconds. The specimens were serially sectioned mesiodistally. Each section was examined under a stereomicroscope. The extent of microleakage was ranked using a 0 to 4 scale at both occlusal and cervical margins of the restorations. Data were analyzed initially using the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by multiple comparisons using the Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon test.


The type of restorative material had a significant influence on dye penetration, whether in the enamel margin or in dentinal margin (p < 0.001). The microleakage of glass ionomer group was the highest. No statistical differences were found in dye penetration between scaling groups (hand instrumentation and ultrasonic scaling) (p > 0.05).


Type of restorative material had a significant influence on microleakage. No statistical differences were found in dye penetration between scaling groups.

Clinical significance

The microleakage of glass ionomer restoration is greater than amalgam and composite restorations after subjecting them to hand instrumentation and ultrasonic scaling.

How to cite this article

Rohani B, Barekatain M, Farhad SZ, Haghayegh N. Influence of Hand Instrumentation and Ultrasonic Scaling on the Microleakage of various Cervical Restorations: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(6):437-442.

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