The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 8 ( August, 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis

T Shankar, Snigdha Gowd, Suravi Chatterjee, Pritam Mohanty, Nivedita Sahoo, Srinivas Baratam

Citation Information : Shankar T, Gowd S, Chatterjee S, Mohanty P, Sahoo N, Baratam S. Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (8):700-704.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2110

Published Online: 01-08-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim

To investigate the two clinical parameters, such as gingival zenith positions (GZPs) and gingival zenith levels (GZLs), of maxillary anterior dentition in bimaxillary protrusion cases and collate it with severiety of crown inclination.

Materials and methods

Gingival zenith position and GZL in 40 healthy patients (29 females and 11 males) with an average age of 21.5 years were assessed. Inclusion criteria involved absence of periodontal diseases, Angle's class I molar relationship, and upper anterior proclination within 25 to 45° based on Steiner's analysis; exclusion criteria included spacing, crowding, anterior restoration and teeth with incisor attrition or rotation.

The GZP was evaluated using digital calipers from voxelbased morphometry (VBM), and GZL was assessed from the tangent drawn from GZP of central incisor and canines to the linear vertical distance of GZP of lateral incisor.

Results

All the central incisors showed a GZP distal to VBM with a mean average of 1 mm. Severe proclination between 40 and 45° showed a statistically significant variation. Lateral incisors displayed a mean of 0.5 mm deviation of GZP from the vertically bisected midline. In 80% of canine population, GZP was centralized.

Conclusion

We conclude that the degree of proclination of maxillary anterior dentition was correlated to the gingival contour in bimaxillary cases. The investigation revealed that there is a variation in the location of GZP as the severity of proclination increases.

Clinical significance

This study highlights the importance of microesthetics in fixed orthodontic treatment. The gingival contour should be unaltered while retraction during management of bimaxillary protrusion.

How to cite this article

Gowd S, Shankar T, Chatterjee S, Mohanty P, Sahoo N, Baratam S. Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):700-704.


PDF Share
  1. Dental orthopedia and correction of cleft palate. Chicago (IL): C. S. Case Company; 1921.
  2. The perceived impact of extraction and nonextraction treatments on matched samples of African American patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999 Sep;116(3):352-358.
  3. Bimaxillary protrusion in black Americans–an esthetic evaluation and the treatment considerations. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993 Sep;104(3):240-250.
  4. A cephalometric evaluation of American Negro women. Am J Orthod 1978 Feb;73(2):152-160.
  5. An epidemiologic survey of malocclusions among American Negroes and American Hispanics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1978 Mar;73(3):258-273.
  6. Profile changes following orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion in adults with the Begg appliance. Eur J Orthod 1989 Nov;11(4):375-381.
  7. Profile changes following orthodontic correction of bimaxillary protrusion with a preadjusted edgewise appliance. Int J Adult Orthodont Orthognath Surg 1996 Feb;11(3):239-251.
  8. Bimaxillary protrusion as a pathologic problem in the Thai. Am J Orthod 1980 Mar;77(3):320-329.
  9. ; Belser, U. Bonded porcelain restorations in the anterior dentiton. A biomimetic approach. Carol Stream (IL): Quintessence; 2002. p. 58-64.
  10. ; Listgarten, MA.; Terranova, VP. The gingiva: Structure and function. In: Genco RJ, Goldman HM, Cohen DW, editors. Contemparary periodontics. St. Louis (MO): C.V. Mosby; 1990. p. 3-32.
  11. Fundamentals of esthetics. Chicago (IL): Quintessence Publishing; 1990. p. 124-127.
  12. Predictable “Gum Lifts” made easy. Oral Health and Dental Practice Management. 2003. [cited 2007 Nov 24]. Available from: http://www.oralhealthjournal.com/issues/ISarticle.asp?id=97041&story_id=155240115507&issue=04012003&PC=.
  13. Gingival aesthetics: a critical factor in smile design. Oral Health Dent Pract Manage. 2003. [cited 2007 Nov 24]. Available from: http://www.oralhealthjournal.com/issues/ISarticle.asp?id=97035&story_id=155216115410&issue=04012003&PC=.
  14. Contemporary esthetics platinum paradigm. Phoenix (AZ): Visual Smile Creations; 2003. p. 2-20.
  15. Contemporary orthodontics. St Louis (MO): CV Mosby Company; 1986. p. 121-129.
  16. Gingival zenith positions and levels of the maxillary anterior dentition. J Esthet Restor Dent 2009 Apr;21(2):113-120.
  17. Principles of esthetic integration. Chicago (IL): Quintessence; 2000. p. 154.
  18. Periodontal conditions in adolescents subjected to multiband orthodontic treatment with controlled oral hygiene. Eur J Orthod 1982 May;4(2):77-86.
  19. Evaluation of the use of orthodontic records to measure the width of keratinized tissue. J Periodontol 1995 Jun;66(6):438-442.
  20. Uma abordagem estética e funcional do tratamento ortodôntico em pacientes com agenesias de incisivos laterais superiores. Rev Dent Press Ortodon Ortopedi Facial 2003 Nov-Dec;8(6):119-157.
  21. Improving the esthetic outcome of canine substitution for missing maxillary lateral incisors. World J Orthod 2007 Feb;8(1):72-79.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.