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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Quantitative Assessment of apically Extruded Bacteria using different Instrumentation Techniques and Preparation Taper

Vinisha Pandey, Harsh Priyank, Achla Sethi, Ramandeep S Punia, Harleen Bali, Vinay J Sharma

Citation Information : Pandey V, Priyank H, Sethi A, Punia RS, Bali H, Sharma VJ. Quantitative Assessment of apically Extruded Bacteria using different Instrumentation Techniques and Preparation Taper. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (9):826-830.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2134

Published Online: 01-03-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



Cleaning and shaping of the pulp canal is one of the most important steps of endodontic therapy. Serious complications occur by the apical extrusion of bacteria during the instrumentation procedures. Both crown-down (CD) and full-length linear motion (FM) techniques are routinely used as a component of taper rotary instrument procedures for achievement of thorough cleaning and shaping of the pulp canal space. Hence, we aimed for this study to assess the change in the amount of apically extruded bacteria using CD and FM instrumentation techniques produced by differences in taper between the instruments used during biomechanical preparation of root canals.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessments of 132 extracted maxillary central incisor teeth. To achieve a uniform teeth length of 21 mm, the height of the tooth crown was reduced for preserving the coronal portion of teeth. A modified glass vial model was constructed for the estimation of amount of bacterial extrusion through the apical region. For filling of each pulp canal specimen, 20 mL of Enterococcus faecalis suspension was used followed by the use of a number 10 K-file for carrying the bacteria down the lengths of pulp canals. All the contaminated teeth specimens were divided into six study groups with groups I to III containing specimens prepared in the CD manner, while groups IV to VI contained specimens prepared in the FM manner. Six teeth were taken as negative control with three specimens with each technique, and another six specimens were taken as positive controls. Cultivable bacterial counts were determined by evaluating 100 mL saline solution from each vial followed by its inoculation on blood agar. All the colony-forming unit (CFU) values were log-transformed (base 10), and the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.


A significantly lower quantity of CFU values was observed during CD instrumentation procedures with 0.02 files in comparison with all other study groups. However, while comparing both the instrumentation procedures when different taper files, other than 0.02 taper, were used for biomechanical preparation of root canal, nonsignificant results were obtained.


With 0.02 taper preparations, significantly less amount of extrusion of bacteria is associated when done with CD technique.

Clinical significance

No change in the amount of apical extrusion of bacteria will be seen by changing the type of instrumentation procedures. Amount of bacteria extruded can be minimized using 0.02 taper.

How to cite this article

Priyank H, Pandey V, Sethi A, Sharma VJ, Bali H, Punia RS. Quantitative Assessment of apically Extruded Bacteria using different Instrumentation Techniques and Preparation Taper. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(9):826-830.

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