The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 10 ( 2018 ) > List of Articles


A Study on the Evaluation of Pharyngeal Size in Different Skeletal Patterns: A Radiographic Study

Pratibha Sharma, Arihant Banthia, Srinivasa K Rao, Karthik Choudhary, Nitin Awasthi

Keywords : ANB angle, Cephalometric, Pharyngeal airway and Sagittal.

Citation Information : Sharma P, Banthia A, Rao SK, Choudhary K, Awasthi N. A Study on the Evaluation of Pharyngeal Size in Different Skeletal Patterns: A Radiographic Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (10):1278-1283.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2417

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-08-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the upper and lower pharyngeal airway dimensions were affected by different skeletal malocclusions. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects were used to measure the pharyngeal airway and were divided into three groups (each group included 40 subjects) according to ANB angle: Class I (ANB angle 2o ≤ ANB ≤ 4o), Class II (ANB angle(ANB ≥ 6o), and Class III (ANB angle ≤ 0o). Various linear cephalometric airway measurements (14 measurements) were used to evaluate pharyngeal airway at various levels. Statistical analyses were performed Using the ANOVA and student t-test. Results: PNS-ppw1 (p < 0.001) and McNamara’ lower pharynx dimension (p < 0.05) showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Two out of 14 variables ie Ba-PNS and t-ppw showed a statistically significant difference between male and female. In both measurements, the difference is significant only in the Class II group with the level of significance being (p < 0.001) in Ba-PNS measurement, and (p < 0.05) in t-ppw measurement. In both measurements males have statistically significant higher mean values than the females. Conclusion: The dimensions of pharyngeal structures were not affected by the changes of the ANB angle. The sagittal skeletal pattern does not seem to influence the variations in the upper airway dimension. There was no significant difference in the dimensions of pharyngeal structures among males and females. Clinical significance: The upper and lower pharyngeal airway dimensions are affected by different skeletal malocclusions can significantly aid in Orthodontic treatment planning.

PDF Share
  1. Cooper BC. Nasorespiratory function and orofacial development. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1989;22:413-441.
  2. Yamada T, Tanne K, Miyamoto K, Yamauchi K. Influences of nasal respiratory obstruction on craniofacial growth in young Macaca fuscata monkeys. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997;111:38-43.
  3. Tomes. CS. On the developmental origin of the Vshaped contracted maxilla. Monthly Rev Dent Surg 1872:1.2-5.
  4. Angle EH. Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth. 7th ed. Philadelphia: SS White Manufacturing Company; 1907. p. 52-54.
  5. Harvold EP, Chierici G, Vargervik K. Experiments on the development of dental malocclusions. Am J Orthod 1972;61:38-44.
  6. Linder-Aronson S. Effects of adenoidectomy on mode of breathing, size of adenoids and nasal airflow. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1973;35:283-302.
  7. Linder-Aronson S, Henrikson CO. Radiocephalometric analysis of anteroposterior nasopharyngeal dimensions in 6- to 12-year-old mouth breathers compared with nose breathers. ORL 1973;35:19-29.
  8. McNamara JA.: Influence of respiratory pattern on craniofacial growth. Angle Orthod 1981;51:269-300
  9. Solow B, Siersbzek-Nielsen S, Greve E. Airway adequacy, head posture, and craniofacial morphology. AM J ORTHOD 1984;86:214-223.
  10. Isaacson JR, Isaacson RJ, Speidel TM, Worms FW. Extreme variation in vertical facial growth and associated variation in skeletal and dental relations. Angle Orthod. 1971:41:219- 229
  11. Emad Al Maaitah; Nizar El Said ; ES Abu Alhaija : First premolar extraction effects on upper airway dimension in bimaxillary proclination patients. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:853- 859.
  12. Mergen DC, Jacobs RM. The size of nasopharynx associated with normal occlusion and Class II malocclusion. Angle Orthod 1970;40:342-346
  13. Sosa FA, Graber TM, Muller TP. Postpharyngeal lymphoid tissue in Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions. AM J ORTHOD 1982;81:299-309.
  14. de Freitas MR, Alcazar NM, Janson G, de Freitas KM, Henriques JF. : Upper and lower pharyngeal airways in subjects with Class I and Class II malocclusions and different growth patterns. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;130:742-745.
  15. Yoshihiko Takemoto ; Issei Saitoh; Tomonori Iwasaki; Emi Inada; Chiaki Yamada; Pharyngeal airway in children with prognathism and normal occlusion Angle Orthod. 2011;81:75–80.
  16. Handelman CS, Osborne. Growth of nasopharynx and adenoid development from one to eighteen years. Angle Ortho 1976; 46 : 243-249.
  17. Martin O, Muelas L, Vi~nas MJ.: Nasopharyngeal cephalometric study of ideal occlusions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 130:436.e1-9.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.