The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic effect on the Buccal Mucosa Cells of Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

Junaid MH Kapadia, Anshu R Agarwal, Samvit Mishra, Purva Joneja, Asad S Yusuf, Deepak S Choudhary

Keywords : Chromium, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, Nickel, Orthodontic, Zinc

Citation Information : Kapadia JM, Agarwal AR, Mishra S, Joneja P, Yusuf AS, Choudhary DS. Cytotoxic and Genotoxic effect on the Buccal Mucosa Cells of Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (11):1358-1362.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2432

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-11-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the presence of metal ions and deoxyribonucleic acid damage on the cells of buccal mucosa in subjects scheduled to undergo fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: Eighty patients scheduled to undergo orthodontic treatment were included in the present study. Samples were collected from buccal mucosa of the subjects at five different intervals: before the starting of the fixed appliance therapy, 5 months after the insertion of the appliance, 10 months after insertion of the appliance, 15 months after insertion of the appliance and 20 months after insertion of the appliance. Flow cytometry was further used for assessment of apoptosis. Comet assay was used for evaluating the metal ions associated deoxyribonucleic acid ((DNA) damage of buccal epithelial cells. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for measuring the nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) levels in the cells of the buccal mucosa. Analysis of data was done by SPSS software version 16.0. Results: A significant increase in the Ni, Cr and Zn concentration during orthodontic treatment was observed. A progressive non-significant decrease in the percentage of viable cells from a baseline value to the end of the treatment was observed. A significant increase in the head diameter, DNA in tail and tail length, starting from the pretreatment value to the end of orthodontic treatment, was also observed. Conclusion: Timely checking of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and nuclear changes should be done for detecting earlier adverse changes. Clinical significance: In patients wearing orthodontic appliances, no clinical impact occurs by wearing fixed appliances.


PDF Share
  1. Mockers O, Deroze D, Camps J. Cytotoxicity of orthodontic bands, brackets and arch wires in vitro. Dent Mater 2002;18:311-317.
  2. Lindsten R, Kurol J. Orthodontic appliances in relation to nickel hypersensitivity: a review. J Orofac Orthop 1997;58: 100-108.
  3. Starkjaer L, Menne T. Nickel allergy and orthodontic treatment. Eur J Orthod 1990;12:284-289
  4. Eliades T, Pratsinis H, Kletsas D, Eliades G, Makou M. Characterization and cytotoxicity of ions released from stainless steel and nickel-titanium orthodontic alloys. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Jan;125(1):24-29.
  5. Tomakidi P, Koke U, Kern R, Erdinger L, Kruger H, Kohl A. Assessment of acute cyto- and genotoxicity of corrosion eluates obtained from orthodontic materials using monolayer cultures of immortalized human gingival keratinocytes. J Orofac Orthop. 2000;61(1):2-19.
  6. Pereira BR, Tanaka OM, Lima AA, Guariza-Filho O, Maruo H, Camargo ES. Metal and ceramic bracket effects on human buccal mucosa epithelial cells. Angle Orthod. 2009 Mar;79(2):373-379.
  7. Heravi F, Abbaszadegan MR, Merati M, Hasanzadeh N, Dadkhah E, Ahrari F. DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. J Dent (Tehran, Iran). 2013;10(6):494-500.
  8. Hafez HS, Selim EM, Kamel Eid FH, Tawfik WA, Al-Ashkar EA, Mostafa YA. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metal release in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: a longitudinal in-vivo study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Sep;140(3):298-308.
  9. Besaratinia A, Van Straaten HW, Godschalk RW, Van Zandwijk N, Balm AJ, Kleinjans JC, et al. Immunoperoxidase detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers and non smokers. Environ Mol Mutagen 2000;36:127-133.
  10. Hartmann A, Speit G. The contribution of cytotoxicity to DNA-effects in the single cell gel test (comet assay). Toxicol Lett 1997;90:183-188.
  11. Duensing TD, Watson SR. Assessment of Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) by Flow Cytometry. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2018 Jan 2;2018(1):pdb.prot093807.
  12. Gyori BM, Venkatachalam G, Thiagarajan PS, Hsu D, Clement M-V. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis. Redox Biology. 2014;2:457-465.
  13. Schmalz G, Garhammer P. Biological interactions of dental cast alloys with oral tissues. Dent Mater. 2002; 18(5): 396-406.
  14. Gonçalves TS, Menezes LM, Trindade C, Machado Mda S, Thomas P, Fenech M et al. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of orthodontic bands with or without silver soldered joints. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014;762: 1-8.
  15. Amini F, Borzabadi Farahani A, Jafari A, Rabbani M. In vivo study of metal content of oral mucosa cells in patients with and without fixed orthodontic appliances. Orthod Craniofac Res 2008;11:51-56. 16 Guler C, Toy E, Ozturk F, Gunes D, Karabulut AB, Otlu O, et al. Evaluation of salivary total oxidant-antioxidant status and DNA damage of children undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. Angle Orthod 2015;85:239-244.
  16. Heravi F, Abbaszadegan MR, Merati M, Hasanzadeh N, Dadkhah E, Ahrari F. DNA Damage in Oral Mucosa Cells of Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. J Dent (Tehran, Iran). 2013;10(6):494-500.
  17. Faccioni F, Franceschetti P, Cerpelloni M, Fracasso ME. In vivo study on metal release from fixed orthodontic appliances and DNA damage in oral mucosa cells. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124:687-693
  18. Westphalen GH, Menezes LM, Prá D, Garcia GG, Schmitt VM, Henriques JA, Medina-Silva R. In vivo determination of genotoxicity induced by metals from orthodontic appliances using micronucleus and comet assays. Genet Mol Res. 2008;7(4):1259-1266.
  19. Natarajan M, Padmanabhan S, Chitharanjan A, Narasimhan M. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of fixed appliances on oral mucosal cells and the relationship to nickel and chromium concentrations: an in-vivo study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Sep;140(3):383-388.
  20. Fernandez-Minano E, Ortiz C, Vicente A, Calvo JL, Ortiz AJ. Metallic ion content and damage to the DNA in oral mucosa cells of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Biometals 2011 Oct;24(5):935-941.
  21. Bishara SE, Barrett RD, Selim MI. Biode-gradation of orthodontic appliances. Part II. Changes in the blood level of nickel. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Feb;103(2): 115-119.
  22. Eliades T, Trapalis C, Eliades G, Katsavrias E. Salivary metal levels of orthodontic patients: a novel methodological and analytical approach. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Feb;25(1):103-106.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.