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VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope

Deepika Gupta, Amit K Gupta, Ajay K Gupta, Gita Shukla

Citation Information : Gupta D, Gupta AK, Gupta AK, Shukla G. Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (3):283-286.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2253

License: CC BY 3.0

Published Online: 01-07-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).



Orthodontic treatment these days is increasing in demand, and therefore, it is relatively imperative for the orthodontist to prescribe the use of fluoride-containing products, such as mouthwashes and gels, to help prevent dental caries and maintain healthy oral health. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effects of fluoride prophylactic agents on mechanical properties of nickel titanium (NiTi) wires during orthodontic treatment using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Materials and methods

We used the commercially available round preformed NiTi orthodontic archwire (3M company) and three different mouthwash solutions, i.e., Phos-Flur gel (1.1% sodium acidulated phosphate fluoride, APF, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 5.1; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals) and Prevident 5000 (1.1% sodium fluoride neutral agent, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 7; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals). All the specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a universal testing machine. To observe the surface morphological changes, one wire from each group was randomly selected and observed under a SEM.


It was observed that there was not much difference in the values of both modulus of elasticity and yield strength obtained after loading of stress on the wires in all the three experimental conditions. A significant difference in both modulus of elasticity and yield strength was observed during unloading of stress. Further, when the surface characteristics were observed for all the specimens using SEM images, it was observed that NiTi wires treated with Phos-Flur showed large surface defects which appeared as round, pitted areas depicting corrosion, numerous white inclusions, and overall damaged surface structure of the wire as compared with the control.


Thus, fluoridated mouthwashes are essential to maintain good oral hygiene and decrease instance of caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The prophylactic usage of topical fluoride agents on NiTi wire seems to diminish the mechanical properties of the orthodontic wire that could significantly affect future treatment outcomes.

Clinical significance

It has been proved that fluoride mouthwashes/gels do affect the structural surface qualities and strength of wires used during the orthodontic treatment irrespective of the composition of the wires. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the clinician to prescribe these prophylactic agents carefully while keeping in mind their pH so that the overall result of the treatment may not be hampered and delayed due to change in properties of the wires used.

How to cite this article

Gupta AK, Shukla G, Sharma P, Gupta AK, Kumar A, Gupta D. Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(3):283-286.

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