The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 4 ( 2018 ) > List of Articles


Remineralization Potential of Three Different Dentifrices using Raman Spectroscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope

Tisson V Job, Girish T Narayana, Kishan K Venkappa, Shameem Ahsan, Jayakkodi Harikaran

Keywords : Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate, Fluoride, NovaMin, Remineralization, Tricalcium phosphate

Citation Information : Job TV, Narayana GT, Venkappa KK, Ahsan S, Harikaran J. Remineralization Potential of Three Different Dentifrices using Raman Spectroscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (4):420-425.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2277

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-04-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization potential of three different dentifrices using Raman spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Materials and methods: Totally, 30 extracted intact impacted third molar teeth were selected and the crown of each tooth in a group was separated from the root and longitudinally sectioned into four parts with each section under a subgroup, of which one section was an untreated section, the second and the third sections were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, and the third section was remineralized after demineralization. The teeth in the three groups were demineralized for 4 days and then treated with 0.21% sodium fluoride dentifrice with tricalcium phosphate, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), and NovaMin for 14 days, following which the teeth surfaces were studied using Raman spectroscopy and CLSM to assess the remineralization potential of the three dentifrices. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed better remineralization with CPP-ACP, which was statistically significant from the groups treated with the NovaMin dentifrice and the fluoridecontaining dentifrice. Confocal laser scanning microscopic examination also revealed significant differences between the three groups with the NovaMin-containing dentifrice demonstrating a greater remineralization of the surface when compared with the CPP-ACP dentifrice. The teeth samples treated with fluoride-containing dentifrice demonstrated the least remineralization among the three groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the demineralized samples of teeth treated with CPP-ACP showed the highest concentration of phosphate ions when analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, and the microscopic examination using confocal laser revealed a better surface remineralization of the demineralized samples when treated with the NovaMin technology. Clinical significance: There is a great need to find ways to enhance the remineralization process and transfer such knowledge into clinical therapy to alter caries balance for the better, especially in individuals with a high cariogenic bacterial challenge.

PDF Share
  1. Reynolds EC. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: the scientific evidence. Adv Dent Res 2009 Aug;21(1):25-29.
  2. Torrado A, Valiente M, Zhang W, Li Y, Munoz C A. Remineralization potential of a new toothpaste formulation: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004 Feb;5(1):18-30.
  3. Burwell AK, Litkowski LJ, Greenspan DC. Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin): remineralization potential. Adv Dent Res 2009 Jul;21(1):35-39.
  4. Featherstone JD. Remineralization, the natural caries repair process—the need for new approaches. Adv Dent Res 2009 Jul;21(1):4-7.
  5. Pfarrer AM, Karlinsey RL. Challenges of implementing new remineralization technologies. Adv Dent Res 2009 Jul;21(1):79-82.
  6. Rana R, Itthagarun A, King NM. Effects of dentifrices on artificial caries like lesions: an in vitro pH cycling study. Int Dent J 2007 Aug;57(4):243-248.
  7. Walsh LJ. Contemporary technologies for remineralization therapies: a review. Int Dent SA 2009 Jan;4:34-46.
  8. Hassanein OE, El-Brolossy T. An investigation about the remineralization potential of bioactive glass on artificially carious enamel and dentin using Raman spectroscopy. Egypt J Solids 2006 Jun;29(1):69-80.
  9. González-Cabezas C, Fontana M, Dunipace AJ, Li Y, Fischer GM, Proskin HM, Stookey GK. Measurement of enamel remineralization using microradiography and confocal microscopy. A correlational study. Caries Res 1998 Sep;32(5): 385-392.
  10. Kumar VL, Itthagarun A, King NM. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions: an in vitro study. Aust Dent J 2008 Mar;53(1):34-40.
  11. Reynolds EC, Cai F, Shen P, Walker GD. Retention in plaque and remineralization of enamel lesions by various forms of calcium in a mouthrinse or sugar-free chewing gum. J Dent Res 2003 Mar;82(3):206-211.
  12. Rose RK. Effects of an anticariogenic casein phosphopeptide on calcium diffusion in streptococcal model dental plaques. Arch Oral Biol 2000 Jul;45(7):569-575.
  13. Rose RK. Binding characteristics of Streptococcus mutans for calcium and casein phosphopeptide. Caries Res 2000 Sep-Oct;34(5):427-431.
  14. Yamasaki H, Litman A, Margolis HC. Effect of fluoride on artificial caries progression and repair in human enamel: regulation of mineral deposition and dissolution under in-vivo like conditions. Arch Oral Biol 2007 Feb;52(2):110-120.
  15. Alaudin, SS.; Fontana, M. Evaluation of Nova Min as an adjunct to fluoride for caries lesion remineralization. NovaMin Research Reports. 2006. [cited 2009 Feb 26]. Available from:
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.