Introduction: Planning extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment is one of the challenging factors for successful functional and esthetic orthodontic results and for the longterm stability.
Aim: The aim of this study is to document possible extraction guidelines for planning of orthodontic treatment for space deficiency cases related to excess tooth material.
Results: The guidelines are written as patterns to facilitate the decision of extraction of teeth for class I, class II division 1, class II division 2, and class III malocclusions, for crowding, overjet reduction, or correcting the buccal segment relationship. The decision for extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment is enforced by the oral hygiene, carious teeth, periodontal involvement, impacted teeth, supernumeraries, hypodontia, or for orthognathic purposes. Also, planning the decision for accurate extraction pattern is the main factor in the success of the orthodontic treatment and for the long-term stability of the results.
Conclusion: Orthodontic tooth extraction should always be planned with consideration of the width and length of the face, the oral hygiene, carious activity, periodontal involvement, malformed crowns, length and health of the root of the teeth, prognosis of impacted teeth, supernumeraries, and hypodontia.
Clinical significance: Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning following orthodontic extraction guidelines lead to a longterm stability of the corrected results.
Weintraub JA, Vig PS, Brown C, Kowalski CJ. The prevalence of orthodontic extractions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989 Dec;96(6):462-466.
Janson G, Maria FR, Bombonatti R. Frequency evaluation of different extraction protocols in orthodontic treatment during 35 years. Prog Orthod 2014 Aug;15(1):51.
Travess H, Roberts Harry D, Sandy J. Orthodontics part 8: extractions in orthodontics. Br Dent J 2004 Feb;196(4):195-203.
Todd J, Dodd T. Children's dental health in the United Kingdom. London: Office of Population Census and Surveys, 1985. 14.
Williams R, Hosila FJ. The effect of different extraction sites upon incisor retraction. Am J Orthod 1976 Apr;69(4):388-410.
Thompson FG. Second premolar extraction in Begg technique. J Clin Orthod 1977 Sep;11(9):610-613.
Singh, G. Textbook of orthodontics. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee; 2007. pp. 250-254.
British Standard Institute. Glossary of dental terms. BS 4492. London: BSI; 1983.
Bradbury AJ. The influence of orthodontic extraction on the caries indices in schoolchildren in the United Kingdom. Comm Dent Health 1985 Jun;2(2):75-82.
Janson G, Fernando J, Alvares E, Rodrigues K. Class II subdivision treatment success rate with symmetric and asymmetric extraction protocols. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003 Oct;64:339.
Mitchell, L. An introduction to orthodontics. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013. pp. 120-124.
Chapin WC. The extraction of maxillary second molars to reduce growth stimulation. Am J Orthod Oral Surg 1939 Nov;25(11):1072-1078.
Janson G, Barros S, Simao T, Freitas M. Relevant variables of class II malocclusion treatment. R Dental Press Ortodon Ortop Facial 2009 Jul;14(4):149-157.
Basdra EK, Stellzig A, Komposch G. Extraction of maxillary second molars in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. Angle Orthod 1996 Feb;66(4):287-291.
Graber TM. The role of upper second molar extraction in orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod 1955 May;41(5):354-361.
Rondeau BH. Second molar extraction technique: overrated or underutilized? Funct Orthod 1999 Oct-Dec;16(4):4-14.
Quinn GW. Extraction of four second molars. Angle Orthod 1985 Jan;55(1):58-69.
Aras A. Class II correction with the modified sagittal appliance and maxillary second molar extraction. Angle Orthod 2000 Aug;70(4):332-338.
Stellzig A, Basdra EK, Komposch G. Skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after extraction of the second molars in the upper jaw. J Orofac Orthop 1996 Oct;57(5):288-297.
Bishara SE, Ortho D, Burkey PS. Second molar extractions: a review. Am J Orthod 1986 May;89(5):415-424.
Graber TM. Maxillary second molar extraction in Class II malocclusion. Am J Orthod 1969 Oct;56(4):331-353.
Whitney EF, Sinclair PM. An evaluation of combination second molar extraction and functional appliance therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1987 Mar;91(3):183-192.
Mageet AO. Classification of skeletal and dental malocclusion: revisited. Stoma Edu J 2016 Aug;3(2):205-211.
Kochel J, Emmerich S, Meyer-Marcotty P, Stellzig-Eisenhauer A. New model for surgical and nonsurgical therapy in adult with class III malocclusion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011 Feb;139(2):165-174.
Ruellas AC, Baratieri C, Roma MB, Izquierdo Ade M, Boaventura L, Rodrigues CS, Telles V. Angle Class III malocclusion treated with mandibular first molar extraction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012 Sep;142(3):384-392.