The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Chemical Denture Disinfectants and Tree Extracts on Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus and Viridans Streptococcus Species Isolated from Complete Denture

Leoney Andonissamy, Suma Karthigeyan, Seyed A Ali, John W Felix

Keywords : Biofilms, Denture disinfectants, Laboratory research, Plant-based disinfectants, Staphylococcus aureus, Viridans Streptococcus

Citation Information : Andonissamy L, Karthigeyan S, Ali SA, Felix JW. Effect of Chemical Denture Disinfectants and Tree Extracts on Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus and Viridans Streptococcus Species Isolated from Complete Denture. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (11):1307-1314.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2712

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-10-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Aims: The present study aims at recording the antibacterial efficacy of various disinfectants used at different time periods against Staphylococcus aureus and viridans streptococcal species of bacteria isolated from complete dentures. Materials and methods: Fifty complete denture patients were selected for the study and swabs were collected from their complete denture surfaces. The isolated bacteria were subjected to six experimental groups which includes four groups of chemical denture disinfectants and two tree extracts groups. Isolation of the bacteria S. aureus and viridians streptococcal species was done by means of selective media and confirmed by means of biochemical tests. The bacteria were subjected to biofilm assays. The biofilm-forming bacteria with optical density (O.D.) values of more than 1.5 were selected for the study. About 150 acrylic specimens were fabricated and were contaminated by the 2 isolated bacteria mentioned above. The contaminated samples were disinfected by immersion for 10, 20, and 30 minutes in six disinfectants, namely: (1) 1% sodium hypochlorite, (2) 2% chlorhexidine, (3) 2% glutaraldehyde, (4) 3.8% sodium perborate, (5) 2% aalam extract, and (6) 2% neem extract. Results: ANOVA test was performed for both S. aureus and viridans streptococcal species with regard to various synthetic and tree extracts as well as time duration of disinfection. F values for disinfection vs S. aureus is 205.4 (p < 0.001) and the relevant Scheffe post hoc test values is in the following order: 3 < 1, 4 < 6, 2 < 5. F values for disinfection vs viridans streptococcal species is 364.7 (p < 0.001) and the relevant Scheffe post hoc test values is in the following order: 3 < 4 < 1, 6, 2 < 5. Conclusion: For biofilm-forming S. aureus, 2% glutaraldehyde showed best antibacterial efficacy which was followed by 1% sodium hypochlorite and 3.8% sodium perborate. When it comes to biofilm-forming viridans streptococcal species, 2% glutaraldehyde showed best antibacterial efficacy. Next to 2% glutaraldehyde, 3.8% sodium perborate exhibited good disinfection potential. Clinical significance: Complete denture patients have a plethora of microorganisms habitating their complete dentures. Some bacteria are capable of causing systemic illness such as aspiration pneumonia and endocarditis. Hence, constant removal and disinfection of biofilms from the denture surface is vital to the local and systemic wellness of the patient. The most common bacteria capable of causing pneumonia and endocarditis that are isolated from complete dentures include S. aureus and viridans streptococcal species. The present study evaluates antibacterial efficacy of different disinfection agents especially against these biofilm-forming bacteria for different time periods.

  1. Felton D, Cooper L, Duqum I, et al. Evidence based guidelines for the care and maintenance of complete denture. J Am Dent Assoc 2011;142(Suppl 1):1S–20S. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2011.0067.
  2. Salles MM, Badaró MM, Arruda CN, et al. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis—a randomized clinical study. J Appl Oral Sci 2015;23(6):637–642. DOI: 10.1590/1678-775720150204.
  3. Connor JN, Schoenfeld CM, Taylor RL. An evaluation of an enzyme denture cleanser. J Prosthet Dent 1977;37(2):147–157. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(77)90236-0.
  4. Lee HE, Lee CY, Chang HW, et al. Effects of different denture cleaning methods to remove Candida albicans from acrylic resin denture based material. J Dent Sci 2011;6(4):216–223. DOI: 10.1016/j.jds.2011.09.006.
  5. Maris P. Mode of action of disinfectants. Rev Sci Tech 1995;14(1):47–55. DOI: 10.20506/rst.14.1.829.
  6. Barnabé W, de Mendonça Neto T, Pimenta FC, et al. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. J Oral Rehabil 2004;31(5):453–459. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01254.x.
  7. Webb BC, Thomas CJ, Harty DWS, et al. Effectiveness of two methods of denture sterilization. J Oral Rehabil 1998;25(6):416–423. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1998.00266.x.
  8. Salvia ACRD, Matilde FDS, Rosaetal FCS. Disinfection protocols to prevent cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories. J Infect Public Health 2013;6(5):377–382. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2013.04.011.
  9. Chau VB, Saunders TR, Pimsler M, et al. Indepth disinfection of acrylic resins. J Prosthet Dent 1995;74(3):309–313. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(05)80140-4.
  10. da Silva FC, Kimpara ET, Mancini MNG, et al. Effectiveness of six different disinfectants on removing five microbial species and effects on the topographic characteristics of acrylic resin. J Prosthodon 2008;17(8):627–633. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00358.x.
  11. Orsi IA, Junior AG, Villabona CA, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of chemical disinfectants for disinfection of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Gerodontology 2011;28(4):253–257. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00400.x.
  12. Balaji S, Muralidharan NP. Effectiveness of 4 different disinfectants in removing 2 microorganisms from acrylic resins. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2016;40(2):83–85.
  13. Pavarina AC, Pizzolitton AC, Machado A, et al. An infection control protocol: effectiveness of immersion solutions to reduce the microbial growth on dental prostheses. J Oral Rehabil 2003;30(5): 532–536. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01093.x.
  14. Bhathal MK, Kukreja U, Kukreja N. Evaluation of efficacy of different denture disinfectants on biofilms formed on acrylic resin. Dent J Adv Stud 2018;6:20–27. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1671696.
  15. Henderson CW, Schwartz RS, Herbold ET, et al. Evaluation of the barrier system, an infection control system for the dental laboratory. J Prosthet Dent 1987;58(4):517–521. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(87) 90286-1.
  16. Jnanadev KR, Satish Babu CL. Disinfecting the acrylic resin plate using electrolyzed acid water and 2% glutaraldehyde. A comparative microbiological study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2011;11(1):36–44. DOI: 10.1007/s13191-011-0057-x.
  17. Prashanth KI, Cecilia SM, Jayalakshmi RK, et al. A study on in vitro antibacterial activity of F. benghalensis linn. On dental caries pathogens Streptococcus mutans and actinomyces viscosus f. Michael Bernard. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013;4(2):843–846.
  18. Parameswari SA, Chetty M, Sekar C. Phytochemical studies and anti-bacterial activity of aerial root of F. benghalensis. Int J Res Phytochem Pharmacol 2011;1:83–87.
  19. Singh RK, Watal G. Antimicrobial potential of F. benghalensis aerial roots. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010;1(3):1–9.
  20. Wolinsky LE, Mania S, Nachnani S, et al. The inhibiting effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation. J Dent Res 1996;75(2):816–822. DOI: 10.1177/00220345960750021301.
  21. Vanka A, Tandon S, Rao SR, et al. The effect of Indigenous Neem (Azadirachta indica) mouth wash on S. mutans and Lactobacilli growth. Indian J Dent Res 2001;12(3):133–144.
  22. Theraud M, Bedouin Y, Guiguen C, et al. Efficacy of antiseptics and disinfectants on clinical and environmental yeast isolates in planktonic and biofilm conditions. J Med Microbiol 2004;53(Pt 10):1013–1018. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.05474-0.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.