The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Acidic Agents on Microhardness and Surface Morphology of Two Metal Ceramic Materials: An In Vitro Study

Shanthi Priya K, V Pridhvi Krishna, P Lakshmaiah, Manasa Chalapathi, Ganji Devi

Keywords : Acidic agents, Metal ceramics, Microhardness, Surface morphology

Citation Information : K SP, Krishna VP, Lakshmaiah P, Chalapathi M, Devi G. Effect of Acidic Agents on Microhardness and Surface Morphology of Two Metal Ceramic Materials: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (11):1329-1334.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2690

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-11-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acidic agents on microhardness and surface morphology of two metal ceramic materials at various intervals. Materials and methods: A total of 120 metal ceramic disks were prepared and divided into two categories with 60 each. Each category was divided into two groups, group I (Made of IPS d.SIGN) and group II (made of VITA VMK), containing 30 samples each, which was subdivided into three subgroups each containing 10 samples A(i) B(i) acting as control, A(ii) B(ii) immersed in 0.5% HCl, and A(iii) B(iii) immersed in soft cola drink. Group I was tested for microhardness with Vickers microhardness testing machine at an interval of 0 minute, 24 hours, and 168 hours after immersing in acidic agents. Group II was observed for surface morphology changes with scanning electron microscope before immersion, and at an interval of 24 hours and 168 hours after immersing in acidic agents. The results were analyzed statistically, tabulated, and compared. Results: Results revealed that there was a significant decrease in microhardness of IPS d.SIGN and VITA VMK when immersed in acidic agents at an interval of 0 minute, 24 hours, and 168 hours. There were significant surface morphological changes too of both the ceramics before and after immersing in acidic agents at 24 hours and 168 hours. Conclusion: Acidic agents evaluated in the present study affected microhardness and surface morphology of both the ceramics, and IPS d.SIGN is the most suitable and would be recommended in people who consume acidic beverages. Clinical significance: Durability of dental ceramics is very good, but degradation occurs when exposed to acidic agents. All the properties of ceramics are to be known in depth as they are widely used to construct various types of prostheses, and this has to be considered especially in people who consume acidic foods and drinks.

PDF Share
  1. Kukiattrakoon B, Junpoon P, Hengtrakool C. Vickers microhardness and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of fluorapatiteleucite and fluorapatite ceramics cyclically immersed in acidic agents. J Oral Sci 2009;51(3):443–450. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.51.443.
  2. Raptis NV, Michalakis KX, Hirayama H. Optical behavior of current ceramic systems. Int J Periodontcs Restorative Dent 2006;26(1):31–41.
  3. Milleding P, Haraldsson C, Karlsson S. Ion leaching from dental ceramics during in vitro corrosion testing. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;61(1):541–550. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.10109.
  4. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Leggat UK. Degradability of fluorapatite-leucite ceramics in naturally acidic agents. Dent Mater 2010;29(5):502–511. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2009-111.
  5. Philips AKJ. Science of dental materials. 11th ed., Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 2006. pp. 655–719.
  6. Haselton DR, Diaz-Arnold AM, Hillis SL. Clinical assessment of high-strength all ceramic crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2000;83(4):396–401. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(00)70033-3.
  7. Kelly JR, Giordano R, Pober R, et al. Fracture surface analysis of dental ceramics: clinically failed restorations. Int J Prosthodont 1990;3(5):430–440.
  8. de Jager N, Feilzer AJ, Davidson CL. The influence of surface roughness on porcelain strength. Dent Mater 2000;16(6):381–388. DOI: 10.1016/S0109-5641(00)00030-0.
  9. Fisher H, Schafer M, Marx R. Effect of surface roughness on flexural strength of veneer ceramics. J Dent Res 2003;82(12):972–975. DOI: 10.1177/154405910308201207.
  10. Goodacre CJ, Bernal G, Rungcharassaeng K, et al. Clinical complications in fixed prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90(1): 31–41. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(03)00214-2.
  11. Anusavice KJ. Degradability of dental ceramics. Adv Dent Res 1992;6:82–89. DOI: 10.1177/08959374920060012201.
  12. Jakovac M, Zivko-Babc J, Curkovic L, et al. Measurement of ion elution from dental ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2006;26(9):1695–1700. DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.03.242.
  13. Jakovac M, Zivko-Babc J, Curkovic L, et al. Chemical durability of dental ceramic material in acid medium. Actastomatol Croat 2006;40(1):65–71.
  14. Copps DP, Lacy AM, Curtis T, et al. Effect of topical fluorides on five low fusing dental porcelains. J Prosthet Dent 1984;52(3):340–343. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(84)90440-2.
  15. Jaeggi T, Lussi A. Prevalence, incidence and distribution of erosion. Monogr Oral Sci 2006;20:44–65. DOI: 10.1159/000093350.
  16. Khan F, Young WG, Law V. Cupped lesions of early onset dental erosion in young southeast Queensland adults. Aust Dent J 2001;46:100–107. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2001.tb00564.x.
  17. Imfeld T. Dental erosion. Definition, classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:151–155. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1996.tb00063.x.
  18. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Kedjarune-Leggat U. Effect of acidic agents on surface roughness of dental ceramics. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2011;8(1):6–15.
  19. Junpoom P, Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C. Surface characteristic changes of dental ceramics after cyclic immersion in acidic agents and titratable acidity. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2010;18(4): 177–184.
  20. Baharav H, Laufer BZ, Pilo R, et al. Effect of glaze thickness on the fracture toughness and hardness of alumina-reinforced porcelain. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81(5):515–519. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(99)70204-0.
  21. Pinto MM, Cesar PF, Rosa V, et al. Influence of pH on slow crack propagation of dental porcelains. Dent mater 2008;24(6):814–823. DOI: 10.1016/
  22. Powers JM, Sakaguchi RL. Craig's restorative dental materials, 12th ed., Mosby; 2006.
  23. Grenby TH, Phillips A, Desai T, et al. Laboratory studies of the dental properties of soft drinks. British J Nutrition 1989;62(2):451–464. DOI: 10.1079/BJN19890045.
  24. Jarvinen V, Meurman JH, Hyvarinen H, et al. Dental erosion and upper gastrointestinal disorders. Oral surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1988;65(3):298–303. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(88)90113-2.
  25. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Leggat UK. The effect of acidic agents on surface ion leaching and surface characteristics of dental porcelains. J Prosthet Dent 2010;103(3):148–162. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60021-2.
  26. Kukiattrakoon B, Hengtrakool C, Leggat UK. Elemental release and surface changes of fluorapatite- leucite porcelain upon immersion in acidic agents. J Dent Sciences 2010;5(4):189–200. DOI: 10.1016/j.jds.2010.11.003.
  27. Yu P, Xu Z, Arola DD, et al. Effect of acidic agents on the wear behavior of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2017;74:154–163. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.06.001.
  28. Denry IL, Holloway JA. Elastic constants, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of flurrichterite based glass ceramics. Dent Mater 2004;20(3):213–219. DOI: 10.1016/S0109-5641(03)00094-0.
  29. Kontonasaki E, Kantiranis N, Papadopoulou L, et al. Micro structural characterization and comparative evaluation of physical, mechanical and biologic properties of three ceramics for metal-ceramic restorations. Dent Mater 2008;24(10):1362–1373. DOI: 10.1016/
  30. Vechiato-Filho AJ, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, et al. Surface degradation of lithium disilicate ceramic after immersion in acid and fluoride solutions. Am J Dent 2015;28(3):174–180.
  31. Al-Hiyasat AS, Saunders WP, Sharkey SW, et al. The effect of carbonated beverage on wear of human enamel and dental ceramics. J Prosthodont 1998;7(1):2–12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.1998.tb00169.x.
  32. Sinmazisik G, Ovecoglu ML. Physical properties and micro structural characterization of dental porcelains mixed with distilled water and modeling liquid. Dent Mater 2006;22(8):735–745. DOI: 10.1016/
  33. Milleding P, Wennerberg A, Alaeddin S. Surface corrosion of dental ceramics in vitro. Biomaterials 1999;20(8):733–746. DOI: 10.1016/S0142-9612(98)00223-3.
  34. Canay S, Hersek N, Ertan A. Effect of different acid treatments on a porcelain surface. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28(1):95–101. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2001.00626.x.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.