Aim: The first purpose of this retrospective observational in vivo study was to determine the incidence of the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in maxillary second molars. The second purpose was to propose a modern shaping procedure able to transform a difficult canal, like MB2, into a normal canal.
Materials and methods: This study was led from September 2016 to December 2017, for 15 months. It was conducted on fifty-seven successive cases of root canal therapy on maxillary second molars. All procedures were done in conformity with the current state of the art practices in endodontics. These included rigorous clinical and radiographic pre-access analysis, appropriate tooth restoration to ensure watertight rubber dam installation, surgical microscopic manipulations for precision, the systematic use of ultrasonic endodontic tips to manage the access cavity preparation, and a modern step down technique to shape MB2.
Results: Fifty-seven maxillary second molars were treated: 3.5% had one canal, 7.0% two canals, 24.6% three canals; 64.9% four canals (MB2 presence). Weine\'s method was used to classify mesiobuccal root canal morphology: 27.4% had a type I canal configuration, 35.3% type II, 37.2% type III canal configuration.
Conclusion: The perfect knowledge of endodontic anatomy, a painstaking pre-access analysis of the preoperative radiographs, the systematic identification of the CEJ, using a periodontal probe, the use of surgical microscope coupled with the use of specific endodontic ultrasonic tips and the use of a modern step-down technique allows a high accuracy of the access cavity preparation, canal localization and instrumentation.
Clinical significance: The rate of MB2 localization and instrumentation on maxillary second molars by our surgical protocol is high. The clinician should take the necessary time to locate and negotiate the MB2. The lack of its location can provoke the failure of endodontic treatment.