Aim: This study aimed to examine the effect of postoperative home bleaching using 20% carbamide peroxide on the shear bond strengths of different adhesives to enamel and to verify the failure mode for each test specimen.
Materials and methods: One hundred sound human molars were used in this study. Bonding procedures were performed on the flattened buccal enamel surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. Opti Bond Solo Plus adhesive (Kerr), Single Bond Universal adhesive (3M ESPE) applied with both the total-etch and self-etch techniques, and Tetric N-Bond Universal adhesive (Ivoclar Vivadent) applied with both the total-etch and self-etch techniques were used, followed by resin composite post fabrication (Filtek Z350 XT; 3M ESPE). All specimens were thermo-cycled for 5000 cycles and then divided into the control (non-bleach) and postoperative bleaching groups (20% carbamide peroxide). The shear bond strength values were measured and compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's test (p ≤ 0.05). The failure modes of debonded specimens were evaluated using a digital microscope (50×). The bonding interfaces of the resin composite posts to different enamel conditions (control and postoperative bleaching) were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before the shear bond test.
Results: The shear bond strength values of all tested adhesives were lower in the postoperative bleaching group than they were in the control (non-bleach) group, particularly the bond strength values of self-etch adhesives.
Conclusion: The stability of bonded resin composite restorations to enamel, using different dental adhesives, could be compromised after the bleaching procedure at varying sensitivity levels.
Clinical significance: Replacement of bonded resin composite restorations to enamel might be considered after bleaching procedures, especially if these restorations were previously bonded with self-etch adhesives.
Calderini A, Sciara S, Semeria C, Pantaleo G, Polizzi E. Comparative clinical and psychosocial benefits of tooth bleaching: different light activation of a 38% peroxide gel in a preliminary case-control study. Clin Case Rep. 2016;4(8):728-735.
Alqahtani MQ. Tooth-bleaching procedures and their controversial effects: A literature review. Saudi Dent J. 2014;26(2): 33-46.
Cavalli V, Silva BG, Berger SB, Abuna G, Marson FC, Tabchoury C, et al. Effect of adhesive restoration and bleaching technique on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the pulp chamber. Oper Dent. 2017;42(2):E44-E54.
Haywood VB. History, safety, and effectiveness of current bleaching techniques and applications of the nightguard vital bleaching technique. Quintessence Int. 1992;23(7):471-88.
Joiner A. The bleaching of teeth: a review of the literature. J Dent. 2006;34(7):412-419.
Minoux M, Serfaty R. Vital tooth bleaching: biologic adverse effects-a review. Quintessence Int. 2008;39(8):645-659.
Dahl JE, Pallesen U. Tooth bleaching--a critical review of the biological aspects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):292-304.
Elfallah HM, Bertassoni LE, Charadram N, Rathsam C, Swain MV. Effect of tooth bleaching agents on protein content and mechanical properties of dental enamel. Acta Biomater. 2015; 20:120-128.
Menezes RP, Silva PD, Leal PC, Faria ESAL. Impact of 35% hydrogen peroxide on color and translucency changes in enamel and dentin. Braz Dent J. 2018;29(1):88-92.
Yu H, Zhang CY, Wang YN, Cheng H. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching induces changes in the physical properties of dental restorative materials: Effects of study protocols. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2018;30(2):E52-E60.
Hannig C, Duong S, Becker K, Brunner E, Kahler E, Attin T. Effect of bleaching on subsurface micro-hardness of composite and a polyacid modified composite. Dent Mater. 2007;23(2):198-203.
Turker SB, Biskin T. Effect of three bleaching agents on the surface properties of three different esthetic restorative materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;89(5):466-473.
Ismail EH, Kilinc E, Hardigan PC, Rothrock JK, Thompson JY, Garcia-Godoy C. Effect of two-minute application of 35% sodium ascorbate on composite bond strength following bleaching. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2017;18(10):874-880.
Briso AL, Rahal V, Sundfeld RH, dos Santos PH, Alexandre RS. Effect of sodium ascorbate on dentin bonding after two bleaching techniques. Oper Dent. 2014;39(2):195-203.
Danesh-Sani SA, Esmaili M. Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel and delayed bonding on shear bond strength of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer to bleached enamel. J Conserv Dent. 2011;14(3):241-246.
Elmourad A, Alqahtani M. Effects of pre- and post-simulated home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide on the shear bond strengths of different adhesives to enamel. The Saudi Journal for Dental Research. 2014;5(2):81-92.
Barcellos DC, Benetti P, Fernandes VV, Jr., Valera MC. Effect of carbamide peroxide bleaching gel concentration on the bond strength of dental substrates and resin composite. Oper Dent. 2010;35(4):463-469.
Dudek M, Roubickova A, Comba L, Housova D, Bradna P. Effect of postoperative peroxide bleaching on the stability of composite to enamel and dentin bonds. Oper Dent. 2013;38(4):394-407.
Cavalli V, de Carvalho RM, Giannini M. Influence of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents on the bond strength of resin-enamel/dentin interfaces. Braz Oral Res. 2005;19(1):23-29.
Bagheri R, Fani M, Barfi Ghasrodashti A, Nouri Yadkouri N, Mousavi S. Effect of a home bleaching agent on the fracture toughness of resin composites, using short rod design. J Dent (Shiraz). 2014;15(2):74-80.
Far C, Ruse ND. Effect of bleaching on fracture toughness of composite-dentin bonds. J Adhes Dent. 2003;5(3):175-182.
Woo JM, Ho S, Tam LE. The effect of bleaching time on dentin fracture toughness in vitro. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2010;22(3):179-184.
Piemjai M, Lenglerdphol S. Effect of strong tooth-bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide on marginal seal of dental restorations using self-etch and total-etch adhesives. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2018;30(2):153-159.
Klein CA, Jr., da Silva D, Reston EG, Borghetti DL, Zimmer R. Effect of at-home and in-office bleaching on marginal microleakage in composite resin restorations using two adhesive systems. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2018;19(3):248-252.
Mortazavi V, Fathi M, Soltani F. Effect of postoperative bleaching on microleakage of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2011;8(1):16-21.
Burke FJ, Hussain A, Nolan L, Fleming GJ. Methods used in dentine bonding tests: an analysis of 102 investigations on bond strength. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2008;16(4): 158-165.
Hanabusa M, Mine A, Kuboki T, Momoi Y, Van Ende A, Van Meerbeek B, et al. Bonding effectiveness of a new ‘multi-mode’ adhesive to enamel and dentine. J Dent. 2012;40(6):475-484.
Perdigao J, Sezinando A, Monteiro PC. Laboratory bonding ability of a multi-purpose dentin adhesive. Am J Dent. 2012;25(3):153-158.
McLean DE, Meyers EJ, Guillory VL, Vandewalle KS. Enamel bond strength of new universal adhesive bonding agents. Oper Dent. 2015;40(4):410-417.
Perdigao J, Loguercio AD. Universal or multi-mode adhesives: why and how? J Adhes Dent. 2014;16(2):193-194.
Perdigao J, Munoz MA, Sezinando A, Luque-Martinez IV, Staichak R, Reis A, et al. Immediate adhesive properties to dentin and enamel of a universal adhesive associated with a hydrophobic resin coat. Oper Dent. 2014;39(5):489-499.
Perdigao J, Gomes G, Gondo R, Fundingsland JW. In vitro bonding performance of all-in-one adhesives. Part I–microtensile bond strengths. J Adhes Dent. 2006;8(6):367-373.
Carvalho RM, Manso AP, Geraldeli S, Tay FR, Pashley DH. Durability of bonds and clinical success of adhesive restorations. Dent Mater. 2012;28(1):72-86.
Kerby RE, Knobloch LA. Microtensile bond strength of one-step and self-etching adhesive systems. Oper Dent. 2005;30(2):195-200.
Pashley DH, Tay FR. Aggressiveness of contemporary selfetching adhesives Part II. Effects on unground enamel. Dent Mater. 2001;17(5):430–440.
Tay FR, Pashley DH, King NM, Carvalho RM, Tsai J, Lai SC, Marquezini L., Jr Aggressiveness of self-etch adhesives on unground enamel. Oper Dent. 2004;29(3):309-316.
Perdigao J, Lopes MM, Lambrechts P, Leitao J, Van Meerbeek B, Vanharle G. Effects of a self-etching primer on enamel shear bond strengths and SEM morphology. Am J Dent. 1997;10(3):141-146.
Shimada Y, Senawongse P, Harnirattisai MF, Nakaoki BY, Tagami J. Bond strength of two adhesive systems to primary and permanent enamel. Oper Dent. 2002;27(4):403-409.
de Lima E, Santos R, Durao M, Nascimento A, Braz R. Universal cements: dual activated and chemically activated. Acta Biomater Odontol Scand. 2016;2(1):125-129.
Yazdi FM, Moosavi H, Atai M, Zeynali M. Dentin bond strength and degree of conversion evaluation of experimental self-etch adhesive systems. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7(2):e243-249.
Jayasheel A, Niranjan N, Pamidi H, Suryakanth MB. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of universal dental adhesives -an in vitro study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(7):e892-e896.
Poggio C, Scribante A, Della Zoppa F, Colombo M, Beltrami R, Chiesa M. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel: effect of acid pretreatment. Dent Traumatol. 2014;30(1):43-48.
Altunsoy M, Botsali MS, Sari T, Onat H. Effect of different surface treatments on the microtensile bond strength of two self-adhesive flowable composites. Lasers Med Sci. 2015;30(6):1667-1673.
Shafiei F, Saadat M. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment. Microsc Res Tech. 2016;79(5):403-407.
Devarasa GM, Subba Reddy VV, Chaitra NL, Swarna YM. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching. Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75(5):650-654.
Miyazaki M, Tsujimoto A, Tsubota K, Takamizawa T, Kurokawa H, Platt JA. Important compositional characteristics in the clinical use of adhesive systems. J Oral Sci. 2014;56(1):1-9.
Gandhi G, Kalra JPS, Goyal A, Sharma A. Microphotographic assessment of enamel surface using self-etching primer and conventional phosphoric acid: an in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2018;9(1):15-19.