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VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Prevalence of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders in Adults in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

Keywords : Temporomandibular dysfunction, Temporomandibular joint

Citation Information : Prevalence of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders in Adults in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (9):1009-1013.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2648

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Aim: Assess the prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in adults in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years and above during their routine visit to primary care dental centers in the city in 2018. Five-hundred participants enrolled in this study. Primary healthcare centers are clustered geographically in five areas of the city (north, south, west, east, and center) by the ministry of health. One-hundred participants were recruited from each area. The TMD/pain screener questionnaire was completed by participants. The first item used a scoring mechanism of 0–2 (a = 0, b = 1, c = 2), and the second and third items were scored 0–1 (a = 0, b = 1). A total score of 3 or more indicates the presence of TMD. t test was used to evaluate gender differences in TMD prevalence with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: There were 250 females and 250 males participants. The mean age was 40.6 years (range: 18–89 years; standard deviation: 13.7 years). Answers to the first question showed that 52% of participants had no pain in the temple area, or jaw in the last 30 days, 46% of participants had intermittent pain, and 2% had persistent pain. Twenty-seven percent of participants had pain or stiffness in the jaw upon waking up, whereas 39% of participants had pain while chewing food, 29% experienced pain from opening the mouth or moving the jaw, 34% during jaw habits such as holding the teeth together, clenching, or chewing gum, and 18% during other jaw activities such as talking, kissing, or yawning. A total score of 3 or more was found in 175 participants, indicating a prevalence of 35%. TMD was significantly more prevalent in females (105 participants, 42%) than in males (70 participants, 28%) with p = 0.0008. Conclusion: The prevalence of TMD in adult population in Jeddah is considered high. It is significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Clinical significance: TMD prevalence is relatively high in adults of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Public health efforts should be directed at increasing TMD awareness in patients and healthcare professionals.

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