The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2020 ) > List of Articles


Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet-treated Enamel Surfaces: An In Vitro Study

Rashmi Issar, Deirimika Lakiang, Shashank Saurav, Shashi Ranjan, Rashmi Kishore, Pankaj Singh

Citation Information : Issar R, Lakiang D, Saurav S, Ranjan S, Kishore R, Singh P. Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis of Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet-treated Enamel Surfaces: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (10):1150-1154.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2938

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: The present study evaluated the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on the weight percentage of mineral content of enamel when etched at three different power settings. Materials and methods: Total 20 extracted molar teeth were taken as samples. Enamel slabs were prepared by sectioning the crown from the buccal and lingual aspect with a double-sided diamond disk at slow speed. The 40 specimens were divided into four groups, i.e., control, 1 W, 2 W, and 3 W of 10 specimens each and then irradiation by Er,Cr:YSGG was done. The elements evaluated were calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P). The mean weights of these minerals and the Ca:P ratio in each slab were measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDAX). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Turkey's test was performed with the help of critical difference (CD) or least significant difference (LSD) at 5 and 1% level of significance. Results: There was no significant differences among the four groups for the five minerals and for the calcium:phosphorous ratio (p > 0.05). Photomicrographs by scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that the surfaces exposed to a 3 watt irradiation showed more roughness than those of the 1 watt and 2 watt groups. Conclusion: The Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation of enamel at 1 W, 2 W, and 3 W had no significant effect on the mean percentage weights of Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P or the Ca/P ratio in any group. Clinical significance: Constriction with conviction is the new motto of restorative dentistry. Er,Cr:YSGG not only fulfills the aim but also is proving to alter the surface properties by recrystallization and change in composition making the prepared surface caries resistant.

  1. Halla S. “Extension for prevention”: historic development and current status to G V black's concept. Oper Dent 1983;8:57–63.
  2. Buonocore M. A simple method of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filling materials to enamel surfaces. J Dent Res 1955;34(6):849–853.
  3. Ta J, Dostálova T, Jelínková H, et al. Er:YAG laser etching of enamel. Scanning Microsc 1998;12(2):309–315.
  4. Basaran GE, Ayna E, Basaran G, et al. Influence of different power outputs of erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium gallium garnet laser and acid etching on shear bond strengths of a dual cure resin cement to enamel. Lasers Med Sci 2009;26(1):13–19. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0742-8.
  5. Insua AM, Dominguez LS, Rivera FG, et al. Differences in bonding to acid etched or Er:YAG laser treated enamel and dentin surfaces. J Prosthetic Dent 2000;84(3):280–288. DOI: 10.1067/mpr.2000.108600.
  6. Secilmis A, Usumez A, Usumez S, et al. Evaluation of mineral content of enamel prepared by erbium chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium-garnet laser. Lasers Med Sci 2010;25(4):467–472. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0656-5.
  7. Dunn JW, Davis TJ, Bush AC. Shear bond strength and SEM evaluation of composite bonded to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin and enamel. Dent Mater 2005;21(7):616–624. DOI: 10.1016/
  8. Ozer T, Basaran G, Berk N. Laser etching of enamel for orthodontic bonding. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;134(2):193–197. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.04.055.
  9. Hossain M, Nakumura Y, Yamada Y, et al. Analysis of surface roughness of enamel and dentin after Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2001;19(6):297–303. DOI: 10.1089/104454701753342749.
  10. Lin S, Liu Q, Peng Q, et al. The ablation threshold of erbium laser and Er,Cr:YSGG laser in dental dentin. Sci Res Essays 2010;5(16):2128–2135.
  11. Martins GRV, Lepri CP, Dibb RGP. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on enamel caries prevention. Lasers Med Sci 2013;28(1):33–39. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-012-1056-9.
  12. Apel C, Meister J, Schmitt, et al. Calcium solubility of human enamel following sub ablative Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation in vitro. Lasers Surg Med 2002;30(5):337–341. DOI: 10.1002/lsm. 10058.
  13. Hossain M, Kinoshita JI, Yamada Y, et al. Compositional and structural changes of human dentin following Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation in vitro. J Oral Laser Appli 2006;6:23–28.
  14. Ramalho KM, Hsu CY, Freitas PM, et al. Erbium lasers for the prevention of enamel and dentin demineralization: a literature review. Photomed Lasr Surg 2015;33(6):301–309. DOI: 10.1089/pho.2014.3874.
  15. Issar R, Mazumdar D, Ranjan S, et al. Comparative evaluation of the etching pattern of Er,Cr:YSGG and acid etching on extracted human teeth: an ESEM analysis. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(5):ZC01–ZC05. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/19739.7705.
  16. Scimeca M, Bischetti S, Lamsira H, et al. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis: a powerful tool in biomedical research and diagnosis. Eur J Histochem 2018;62(1):2841. DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2018.2841.
  17. Yu DG, Kimura Y, Kinoshita M, et al. Morphological and atomic analytical studies on enamel and dentin irradiated by an erbium, chromium: YSGG Laser. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18(3):139–143. DOI: 10.1089/clm.2000.18.139.
  18. Olivi G, Angiro F, Benedicenti S, et al. Use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium–garnet laser on human enamel tissues. Influence of the air-water spray on the laser tissue interaction: SEM evaluations. Lasers Med Sci 2010;25(6):793–797. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0689-9.
  19. Kahvecilglu F, Kahraman K, Akman H, et al. Effects of Er:YAG laser treatment on the mineral content and morphology of primary tooth enamel. Phtomed Laser Surg 2018;36(12):680–686. DOI: 10.1089/pho.2018.4482.
  20. Hossain M, Yamada Y, Nakamura Y, et al. A study on surface roughness and microleakage test in cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation and etched bur cavities. Lasers Med Sci 2003;18(1):25–31. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-002-0235-5.
  21. Ana PA, Bachmann L, Zezell DM. Lasers effects on enamel for caries prevention. Laser Phys 2006;16(5):865–875. DOI: 10.1134/S1054660X06050197.
  22. Apel C, Schafer C, Gutknecht N. Demineralisation of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser prepared enamel cavities in vitro. Caries Res 2003;37(1):34–37. DOI: 10.1159/000068228.
  23. Lee BS, Hsieh TT, Lee YL, et al. Bond strengths of orthodontic bracket after acid etched, Er:YAG laser irradiated and combined treatment on enamel surface. Angle Orthod 2003;73(5):565–570.
  24. Cardoso MV, De Munck J, Ermis E, et al. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment on microtensile bond strength of adhesives to enamel. Oper Dent 2008;33(4):448–455. DOI: 10.2341/07-124.
  25. Yazici AR, Frentzen M, Dayangac B. In vitro analysis of the effects of acid or laser etching on microleakage around composite resin restorations. J Dent 2001;29(5):355–361. DOI: 10.1016/S0300-5712(01)00027-6.
  26. Ferreira LS, Apel C, Francci C, et al. Influence of etching time on bond strength in dentin irradiated with erbium lasers. Lasers Med Sci 2010;25(6):849–854. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0715-y.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.