Aim: The review is to highlight the use of antibiotics in periodontal infections and prevent indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Background: Periodontitis is the most common disease of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and its etiological factor can be related to the existence of virulent microorganisms in the dental plaque biofilm which harbors millions of microorganisms. In addition, the pathogenesis of this disease is greatly influenced by the host immune response that leads to the cyclic destruction and healing pattern. Review results: Periodontitis is mostly treated through mechanical debridement using surgical and nonsurgical therapy. However, many times, this treatment does not render desired results due to poor patient compliance, altered immune response, or other host-related factors. This leads to the administration of antibiotics as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. Antibiotics are useful in eliminating periodontopathic microbes, but these agents should be cautiously used and prescribed only if indicated. Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to unforeseen adverse effects as well as the development of resistant strains of microorganisms. Clinical significance: Hence, it is crucial for the dentists to know the indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, correct choice, and dosage of the antimicrobial agent before prescribing it to their patients thereby ensuring the success of periodontal therapy. Thus, the clinician should keep in mind that the antibiotics are merely adjuncts to mechanical therapy and not its replacement.
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