Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the total number of visits required to conclude root canal treatments (RCTs) as well as the motivations associated to the choice of dentists practicing in low-income areas of Brazil. Materials and methods: A total of 3,103 questionnaires were electronically and individually delivered to professionals of Salvador, Sergipe, and Alagoas (Brazil). The questionnaire encompassed sociodemographic data and questions regarding the number of sessions required to conclude RCT. Also, postoperative pain, professional qualification, the use of technological resources, and time for one-visit treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson regression analyses (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 326 responses were obtained with higher prevalence of specialists in the field of endodontics (36.8%). Dentists reported greater preference for rotary instrumentation (Alagoas 54.6%, Aracaju 62.1%, and Salvador 83.5%), and most of the participants reported multiple visits to treat root canals with the necrotic pulp tissue associated or not to periapical radiolucency, excluding Salvador (53.8%). Dentists who graduated in public dental schools were less likely to perform RCT of necrotic teeth with periapical lesion in one clinical appointment (p = 0.034). The single-session therapy was positively associated to continuing education attendance (p = 0.004) and to the occurrence of clinical complications (p < 0.001). Dentists who graduated in lato sensu programs were more likely to conclude RCT in less than 60 minutes (p < 0.001), although the occurrence of postoperative pain was more likely observed upon this scenario (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite the social inequalities in the analyzed area, professionals have been seeking for knowledge by means of continuing education programs and the implementation of technological resources in their clinical routine, although this fact has poorly influenced the acceleration of RCT. Clinical significances: The total number of visits to conclude endodontic treatment may be influenced by both professional and biological parameters such as the attendance to postgraduation programs and the use of technology as well as to the biological condition of the pulp and the occurrence of postoperative complications.
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