Aim: To evaluate the ability of osteogenic culture media in comparison with regular growth culture media in enhancing the osteoblastic cell differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Materials and methods:In vitro cultures of commercially obtained hPDLSCs were seeded onto xenograft bone blocks in both regular and osteogenic media. Confocal laser microscope images were obtained for cellular differentiation and adhesion, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained to validate the osteogenic differentiation by showing the morphological characteristics of the newly formed cells. Results: Confocal laser microscope analysis showed positive staining for new bone cells with an increased signal intensity when samples were cultured in osteogenic culture media compared with regular culture media. These findings indicate the effect of the active ingredients of the osteogenic culture media in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation hPDLSC. Scanning electron microscopy images validated the osteogenic differentiation showing a flattened, polygonal morphology with multiple extending cytoplasmic processes of new cells. Conclusion: Xenograft bone blocks are biocompatible scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of seeded hPDLSCs. Osteogenic culture media enhances and increases the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs into new bone cells more than regular growth culture media. Periodontal ligament stem cells are a predictable biological input as a cell-based tissue-engineered construct and biologically acceptable when it is cultured in a suitable growth media that mimics the intended environment. Clinical significance: Consideration of the clinical use of equine bone blocks and periodontal ligament stem cells in a suitable biological environment as a potential new option for bone regeneration techniques.
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