Aim: This manuscript aims to evaluate, through a scoping review, current knowledge of the biomechanical behavior, materials, preparations, and limitations of occlusal veneers.
Background: Occlusal veneers are a minimally invasive alternative for the additive restoration of posterior teeth with significant loss of the occlusal structure. This type of restoration has been emerged in recent years as an alternative to invasive treatment, which in the same way seeks to restore the structure of the posterior teeth. All this is because in recent years restorative dentistry has focused a large part of its objectives on conservative therapies.
Review results: Five electronic databases—PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar—were searched. Title and abstracts were independently screened by three reviewers, followed by a full-text review. A total of 42 articles met our inclusion criteria; most of these studies were in vitro (n = 35) and other studies were clinical studies (n = 7). These in vitro studies included 21 studies that analyzed the type of preparation and 6 studies that evaluated the limitations of occlusal veneers.
Conclusion: Thicknesses between 0.7 and 1.0 mm are recommended for ceramic materials; in addition, thicknesses less than 0.7 mm are recommended to use polymeric materials. The materials used for this type of restoration are plastic- and ceramic-based materials, whose load resistance values were found to exceed 2000 N in most studies. It is recommended to carry out a minimally invasive preparation or not to carry out a dental preparation, as long as there is a peripheral enamel to make an external bevel that redirects the eccentric forces to the axis of the tooth.
Clinical significance: Restorative dentistry has moved toward conservative treatments with the least amount of dental tissue being removed. Occlusal veneers appear to be a conservative option in the reconstruction of tooth tissues lost due to tooth wear and in cases where it is necessary to restore or increase the vertical dimension.
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