Citation Information :
Hamid SK, AlDubayan AH, Alghamdi LA, Akhtar S, Khan SQ, Ateeq IS, Gad MM. Mechanical, Surface, and Optical Properties of PMMA Denture Base Material Modified with Azadirachta indica as an Antifungal Agent. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (6):655-664.
Aim and objective: The present study assessed the influence of Azadirachta indica (AI) powder on the mechanical, surface, and optical properties of heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material.
Materials and methods: A total of 300 heat-polymerized PMMA acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with dimensions of 65 × 10 × 3.3 ± 0.01 mm for flexural strength, 50 × 6 × 4 ± 0.01 mm for impact strength testing, and 15 × 2 ± 0.01 mm for surface roughness, hardness, and translucency testing. The specimens were distributed into six groups (n = 10) based on AI powder concentration: An unmodified control group and AI powder–modified groups with 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 wt% of acrylic resin powder. Universal testing machine was used to measure flexural strength and Charpy's impact tester for impact strength. Surface roughness, hardness, and translucency were assessed using a profilometer, Vicker hardness tester, and spectrophotometer, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and posthoc Scheffe's test were utilized; p ≤ 0.05 was considered a statistically significant difference.
Results: ANOVA showed no significant differences in terms of impact strength (p = 0.175) and surface roughness (p = 0.371), while significant differences were detected in terms of flexural strength, hardness, and translucency (p = 0.001). According to post hoc Scheffe's test, there was a significant decrease in flexural strength for AI groups (p < 0.001) except 0.5% AI group (p = 0.66), while impact strength had no significant difference between AI groups (p = 0.175). Hardness had an insignificant difference between control and modified groups (p>0.05), with exception of 2.5% AI group (p = 0.001). For translucency, a significant difference was found between control and all modified groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Incorporating AI powder into heat-polymerized denture base material did not significantly alter impact strength, surface roughness, or hardness, except at 2.5% AI concentration, where hardness decreased. On the contrary, flexural strength and translucency were significantly affected.
Clinical significance: This study contributes to establishing a new approach for denture stomatitis disease treatment and prevention with the lowest adverse effect on denture properties.
Gendreau L, Loewy ZG. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. J Prosthodont2011;20(4):251–260. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2011.00698.x.
Webb BC, Thomas CJ, Willcox MDP, et al. Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Aetiology and management: a review. Part I. Factors influencing distribution of Candida species in the oral cavity. Aust Dent J 1998;43(1):45–50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.1998.tb00152.x.
Sultan AS, Rizk AM, Vila T, et al. Digital design of a universal rat intraoral device for therapeutic evaluation of a topical formulation against candida-associated denture stomatitis. Infect Immun 2019;87(12):1–14. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00617-19.
Gleiznys A, Zdanavičienė E, Žilinskas J. Candida albicans importance to denture wearers. A literature review. Stomatologija 2015;17(2): 54–66.
Gad MM, Fouda SM. Current perspectives and the future of Candida albicans-associated denture stomatitis treatment. Dent Med Probl2020;57(1):95–102. DOI: 10.17219/dmp/112861.
Al-Thobity AM, Gad M, ArRejaie A, et al. Impact of denture cleansing solution immersion on some properties of different denture base materials: an in vitro study. J Prosthodont 2019;28(8):913–919. DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12649.
Porwal A, Khandelwal M, Punia V, et al. Effect of denture cleansers on color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of different denture base resins. J Indian ProsthodontSoc 2017;17(1):61–67. DOI: 10.4103/0972-4052.197940.
Hamid SK, Al-Dubayan AH, Al-Awami H, et al. In vitro assessment of the antifungal effects of neem powder added to polymethyl methacrylate denture base material. J ClinExp Dent 2019;11(2): 170–178. DOI: 10.4317/jced.55458.
Gad MM, Al-Thobity AM, Fouda SM, et al. Flexural and surface properties of PMMA denture base material modified with thymoquinone as an antifungal agent. J Prosthodont 2020;29(3): 243–250. DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12967.
Ravva SV, Korn A. Effect of neem (Azadirachtaindica) on the survival of Escherichia coli o157:h7 in dairy manure. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;12(7):7794–7803. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120707794.
Alzohairy M. Therapeutics role of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med2016;2016:7382506. DOI: 10.1155/2016/7382506.
Rao DS, Penmatsa T, Kumar AK, et al. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks on dental plaque: an in vitro study. J Pharm BioalliedSci 2014;6(Suppl. 1):S140–S145. DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.137426.
Bharitkar YP, Bathini S, Ojha D, et al. Antibacterial and antiviral evaluation of sulfonoquinovosyldiacylglyceride: a glycolipid isolated from Azadirachtaindica leaves. Lett ApplMicrobiol 2014;58(2): 184–189. DOI: 10.1111/lam.12174.
International Standard. ISO 1567 for dentistry—denture base polymers. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization; 1999.
International Standard. ISO 1567 AMENDMENT 1 for dentistry—denture base polymers AMENDMENT 1. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization; 2003.
Hamanaka I, Takahashi Y, Shimizu H. Mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. ActaOdontolScand 2011;69(2):75–79. DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2010.517557.
Radford DR, Watson TF, Walter JD, et al. The effects of surface machining on heat cured acrylic resin and two soft denture base materials: a scanning electron microscope and confocal microscope evaluation. J Prosthet Dent 1997;78(2):200–208. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3913(97)70126-4.
Gad MM, Abualsaud R, Rahoma A, et al. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material. Int J Nanomedicine 2018;13:283–292. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S152571.
American Dental Association. Revised American Dental Association specification no. 12 for denture base polymers. J Am Dent Assoc 1975;90(2):451–458. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1975.0069.
Gad MM, Rahoma A, Nawasrah A, et al. Influence of henna addition on the flexural strength of acrylic denture base material: an in vitro study. Al-Azhar Den J2018;5(3):277–283. DOI: 10.21608/adjg.2018.17191.
Cunha TR, Regis RR, Bonatti MR, et al. Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkylmethacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin. J Appl Oral Sci 2009;17(2):103–107. DOI: 10.1590/s1678-77572009000200006.
Goguţă LM, Bratu D, Jivănescu A, et al. Glass fibre reinforced acrylic resin complete dentures: a 5-year clinical study. Gerodontology 2012;29(1):64–69. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00385.x.
Kumar Arun C, Kumar Ravi C, Vamshikiran K, et al. Evaluation of impact strength of dental acrylic resins by incorporation of TiO2nanoparticles using two different processing techniques. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20(10):1184–1189.
Al-Harbi F, Abdel-Halim M, Gad M, et al. Effect of nanodiamond addition on flexural strength, impact strength, and surface roughness of PMMA denture base. J Prosthodont 2019;28(1):417–425. DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12969.
Mayahara M, Kataoka R, Arimoto T, et al. Effects of surface roughness and dimorphism on the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surface of resins: scanning electron microscope analyses of mode and number of adhesions. J InvestigClin Dent2014;5(4):307–312. DOI: 10.1111/jicd.12055.
Von Fraunhofer JA, Loewy ZG. Factors involved in microbial colonization of oral prostheses. Gen Dent2009;57(2):136–143.
Radford DR, Sweet SP, Challacombe SJ, et al. Adherence of Candida albicans to denture-base materials with different surface finishes. J Dent 1998;26(7):577–583. DOI: 10.1016/s0300-5712(97)00034-1.
Nawasrah A, Gad M, El Zayat M. Effect of henna addition on the surface roughness and hardness of polymethylmethacrylate denture base material: an in-vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(6):732–738.
Consani RL, Folli BL, Nogueira MC, et al. Effect of polymerization cycles on gloss, roughness, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins. Braz Dent J 2016;27(2):176–180. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201600733.
Pinto Lde R, Acosta EJ, Távora FF, et al. Effect of repeated cycles of chemical disinfection on the roughness and hardness of hard reline acrylic resins. Gerodontology 2010;27(2):147–153. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00282.x.
Aydogan AE, Durkan R, Bagis B. The effect of acrylamide incorporation on the thermal and physical properties of denture resins. J AdvProsthodont 2013;5(2):110–117. DOI: 10.4047/jap.2013.5.2.110.
Johnston WM, Ma T, Kienle BH. Translucency parameter of colorants for maxillofacial prostheses. Int J Prosthodont 1995;8(1): 79–86.
Johnston WM. Review of translucency determinations and applications to dental materials. J EsthetRestor Dent 2014;26(4): 217–223. DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12112.
Shirkavand S, Moslehifard E. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on tensile strength of dental acrylic resins. J Dent Res Dent Clin D ent Prospects 2014;8(4):197–203. DOI: 10.5681/joddd.2014.036.
Nakajima M, Arimoto A, Prasansuttiporn T, et al. Light transmission characteristics of dentine and resin composites with different thickness. J Dent 2012;40(Suppl. 2):77–82. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.08.016.
Bodurov I, Vlaeva I, Viraneva A, et al. Modified design of a laser refractometer. J Power Electron 2016;2:[1 p.].
Gad MM, Abualsaud R, Rahoma A, et al. Double-layered acrylic resin denture base with nanoparticle additions: an in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent 2020;12:S0022-3913(20)30555-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.08.021 [Epub ahead of print].