Aim: Odontogenic tumors (OTs) and bone lesions of the oral cavity present diverse histological features and varying clinical behavior that makes predicting their biologic behavior difficult. The research undertaken in the current study aims to predict the biological behavior of oral hyalinizing odontogenic and bone lesions (OHO-BL) for the first time by employing four differential stains with clinicopathologic correlation.
Materials and methods: The study was performed on retrospectively diagnosed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases of OTs (n = 53) and bone lesions (n = 10). The severity of hyalinization (SOH) was assessed from stained tissue sections. Polarizing microscopy was used to analyze hyalinization in tissues stained with differential special stains, namely periodic acid–Schiff (PAS), Safranin-O, Alcian Blue, and Picrosirius red. SOH was also analyzed for possible correlation with recurrence and clinicopathologic correlation in OHO-BL.
Results: Intense staining was observed with PAS, Alcian Blue, and Safranin-O in OTs with increased SOH with a statistical significance. Polarizing greenish yellow color correlated significantly with the recurrence potential of the OT group. Recurrence in individual lesions of the OT group showed a statistically significant association with SOH. Such individual correlation was not observed in bone diseases.
Conclusion: PAS, Alcian Blue, Safranin-O, and Picrosirius red are reliable stains to assess hyalinization in OHO-BL. Picrosirius red–polarizing microscopy is a dependable tool for identifying recurrent odontogenic lesions.
Clinical significance: SOH can be considered a histological predictor of aggressive biologic behavior in oral hyalinizing odontogenic lesions that can enable the surgeon to arrive at an appropriate management protocol.
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