Aim: The assessment of hyalinization to determine aggressive behavior in oral pathological lesions is a scarcely researched field that requires further exploration. The current study aims to predict the biological behavior of oral hyalinizing extraosseous lesions (OHEOL) by employing four differential stains with clinicopathologic correlation.
Materials and methods: The study was performed on retrospectively diagnosed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases of salivary gland tumors (SGTs) (n = 13), benign soft tissue (BST) lesions (n = 24), and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) (n = 53). The hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were analyzed for the severity of hyalinization (SOH). Differential stains periodic acid Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue, safranin O, and picrosirius red with polarizing microscopy were used to assess the components of hyalinized tissue. The SOH was correlated with differential staining characteristics and clinicopathologic features to analyze possible correlation with aggressive potential in BST, advancement of disease in OSMF, and recurrence in SGT.
Results: Intensity of picrosirius red stain significantly correlated with SOH of SGTs (p = 0.044). The intensity of PAS stain (p = 0.040), picrosirius red polarizing greenish-yellow color (p = 0.002), and pattern of distribution of picrosirius red (p = 0.023) significantly correlated with recurrence of SGTs. The intensity of differential stains increased with the SOH in BST lesions indicating their correlation with SOH. The intensity (p = 0.008) and pattern (p = 0.010) of Alcian blue staining and intensity of safranin O stain (p = 0.003) significantly correlated with SOH in OSMF. Picrosirius red polarizing color reddish and yellowish red (p = 0.002) significantly correlated with SOH distinguishing early and advanced OSMF.
Conclusion: Picrosirius red and PAS stains are reliable indicators of SOH and recurrence potential in SGT. Alcian blue, safranin O, and picrosirius red polarizing colors enable detection of SOH and accurately distinguish early from advanced OSMF.
Clinical significance: SOH can be considered as a histological predictor of aggressive biologic behavior in OHEOL. These findings will result in appropriate management protocols.
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