The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Embryonic Toxicology Evaluation of Ginger- and Clove-mediated Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Varnish with Zebrafish

Jerry Joe Chokkattu, Ditty J Mary, Singamsetty Neeharika

Keywords : Acute toxicity, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Clove, Dental varnish, Ginger, Nanoparticle, Nitric oxide radical inhibition assay, Titanium oxide, Zebrafish

Citation Information : Chokkattu JJ, Mary DJ, Neeharika S. Embryonic Toxicology Evaluation of Ginger- and Clove-mediated Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Varnish with Zebrafish. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (11):1157-1162.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3436

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-03-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the embryonic toxicology of ginger- and clove-mediated titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs)-based dental varnish with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Materials and methods: Dental varnish was formulated using ginger, clove extract, and titanium dioxide NPs followed by the introduction of this test solution at concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 µL along with a control group with medium zebrafish embryos into a 6-well culture plate. After 2 hours of incubation, the embryos of zebrafish were tested and analyzed for hatchability and mortality rate using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software. Results: The hatching rate of zebrafish embryos was greatest at 1 µL in a declining order when compared to the control group, whereas the mortality rate was greatest at 16 µL compared to the control group. On intergroup comparisons, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has revealed a significance (p = 0.00) between the concentrations and testing parameters such as hatchability and mortality. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the zebrafish embryos exposed acutely to TiO2 NPs at experimental doses have shown significant changes in their rate of deformity and capacity to hatch at 16- and 1-µL concentrations of the dental varnish formulation, respectively. Furthermore, studies are required to prove the efficacy of the formulation. Clinical significance: Research and development of new formulations of various dental products is an ongoing process. One such segment is dental varnishes, wherein herbal resources and NPs mediated for improved efficacy against dental caries is an emerging alternative aiming to counteract the limitations posed by the traditional agents. To develop a new formulation of dental varnish, which is herbal resourced and NPs mediated, for an improved efficacy against dental caries.

  1. Horikoshi S, Serpone N, editors. Chapter 1: Introduction to Nanoparticles. Microwaves in Nanoparticle Synthesis: Fundamentals and Applications. 1st edition. Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons; 2013, p. 352.
  2. Grumezescu AM, Grumezescu V. Materials for Biomedical Engineering: Bioactive Materials, Properties, and Applications. 1st edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2019, p. 616.
  3. Hull M, Bowman D. Chapter 5. Toxicological issues to consider when evaluating the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials. Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety: Risks, Regulation, and Management. 2nd edition. Oxford: William Andrew; 2014, p. 276.
  4. Calvo F. Chapter 5: Optical properties of metallic nanoalloys: From clusters to nanoparticles. Nanoalloys: From Fundamentals to Emergent Applications. Elsevier; 2020, p. 126.
  5. Trepti S, Shruti S, Pradeep K, et al. Application of nanotechnology in Food science: Perception and Overview. Front Microbiol 2017;8. 1–7. DOI:
  6. McNamara K, Tofail SAM. Nanosystems: The use of nanoalloys, metallic, bimetallic, and magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015;17(42):27981–27995. DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00831J.
  7. Friedman AD, Claypool SE, Liu R. The smart targeting of nanoparticles. Curr Pharm Des 2013;19(35):6315–6329. DOI: 10.2174/13816128113199990375.
  8. Gad SC. Alternative species. Animal Models in Toxicology. 3rd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2016. p. 1035. DOI:
  9. Busi S, Madhu D, Kaviyarasu K, et al. Chapter 2. Model organisms to understand biological model organism. Model Organisms to Study Biological Activities and Toxicity of Nanoparticles. 1st edition. Springer Nature; 2020. p. 246. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-1702-0.
  10. Westerfield, M. chapter 1. General methods for zebrafish care. The Zebrafish Book. A Guide for the Laboratory Use of Zebrafish (Danio rerio), 5th Edition. University of Oregon Press, Eugene. 2007.
  11. Vasyutina M, Alieva A, Reutova O, et al. The zebrafish model system for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis research: Focus on environmental/exposome factors and genetic mechanisms. Metabolism 2022;129:155138. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2022.155138.
  12. Cappitelli F and Villa F. Novel Antibiofilm Non-Biocidal strategies. Microorganisms in the Deterioration and Preservation of Cultural Heritage. Editor: Joseph E. Springer Nature; 2021. p. 117–136.
  13. Learner, Thomas J. S., Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, eds. 2007. Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings from the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute. p. 367.
  14. Munshi AK, Reddy NN, Shetty V. A comparative evaluation of three fluoride varnishes: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2001;19(3):92–103. PMID: 11817800.
  15. Kashbour W, Gupta P, Worthington HV, et al. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;11(11):CD003067. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003067.pub5.
  16. Dhanraj G, Rajeshkumar S. Anticariogenic effect of selenium nanoparticles synthesized using Brassica. J Nanomater 2021;2021:1–9. DOI: 10.1155/2021/8115585.
  17. Pandiyanet al. Comparing the antimicrobial efficacy of dentifrice containing Rosmarinus DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00631
  18. Selvaraj A, George AM, Rajeshkumar S. Efficacy of zirconium oxide nanoparticles coated on stainless steel and nickel titanium wires in orthodontic treatment. Bioinformation 2021;17(8):760–766. DOI: 10.6026/97320630017760.
  19. Rajeshkumar S, Santhoshkumar J, Jule LT, et al. Phytosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using king of bitter Andrographis paniculata and its embryonic toxicology evaluation and biomedical potential. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021;2021:1–11. DOI: 10.1155/2021/6267634.
  20. Rajeshkumar S, Vanaja M, Kalirajan A. Degradation of toxic dye using phytomediated copper nanoparticles and its free-radical scavenging potential and antimicrobial activity against environmental pathogens. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021;2021:1–10. DOI: 10.1155/2021/1222908.
  21. Uma Maheswari TN, Chaithanya M, Rajeshkumar S. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal formulation mediated silver DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_98_21.
  22. Subramanian AK, Prabhakar R, Vikram NR, et al. View of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of silymarin/hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites and its cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality assay. 2022;28(2):e71–e77. DOI: 10.47750/jptcp.2022.874
  23. Rajeshkumar S, Santhoshkumar J, Vanaja M, et al. Evaluation of zebrafish toxicology and biomedical potential of aeromonas hydrophila mediated copper sulfide nanoparticles. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022;2022:7969825. DOI: 10.1155/2022/7969825.
  24. Mi XJ, Choi HS, Perumalsamy H, et al. Biosynthesis and cytotoxic effect of silymarin-functionalized selenium nanoparticles induced autophagy mediated cellular apoptosis via downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric cancer. Phytomedicine 2022;99:154014. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154014.
  25. Ganapathy D, Shanmugam R, Pitchiah S, et al. Potential Applications of Halloysite Nanotubes as Drug Carriers: A Review. J Nanomater. 2022;2022:1–7. Available from:
  26. Nagalingam M, Rajeshkumar S, Balu SK, Tharani M, Arunachalam K. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Morinda Citrifolia Leaf Mediated Selenium Nanoparticles. J Nanomater. 2022;2022:1–7. DOI:
  27. Perumalsamy H, Shanmugam R, Kim JR, et al. Nanoemulsion and encapsulation strategy of hydrophobic oregano essential oil increased human prostate cancer cell death via apoptosis by attenuating lipid metabolism. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2022;2022:9569226. DOI: 10.1155/2022/9569226.
  28. Ganapathy D, Shivalingam C, Shanmugam R, et al. Recent Breakthrough of Bismuth-Based Nanostructured Materials for Multimodal Theranostic Applications. J Nanomater 2022:1–7. DOI:
  29. Bar-Ilan O, Chuang CC, Schwahn DJ, et al. TiO2 nanoparticle exposure and illumination during zebrafish development: Mortality at parts per billion concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 2013;47(9):4726–4733. DOI: 10.1021/es304514r.
  30. Pavagadhi S, Sathishkumar M, Balasubramanian R. Uptake of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles by zebrafish embryos in the presence of other contaminants in the aquatic environment. Water Res 2014;55:280–291. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.036.
  31. Chahardehi AM, Arsad H, Lim V. Zebrafish as a successful animal model for screening toxicity of medicinal plants. Plants (Basel) 2020;9(10):1345. DOI: 10.3390/plants9101345.
  32. Xiong D, Fang T, Yu L, et al. Effects of nano-scale TiO2, ZnO and their bulk counterparts on zebrafish: Acute toxicity, oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Sci Total Environ 2011;409(8):1444–1452. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.015.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.