Citation Information :
Deshpande S, Pande N, Patil P. Stomatognathic Risk Factors and Clinical Manifestations of Temporomandibular Disorders in Indian Population: A Case-control Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (12):1195-1198.
Aim: This study was aimed to compare the risk factors and associated clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in the Indian population.
Materials and methods: A total of 52 patients were explored according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and compared with 48 controls. The mean age of the study group was 30.96 ± 11.60 years, 41% were males and 59% were females. The mean age in the control group was 31.5 ± 9.9 years (37.5% males), measuring differences in TMD risk factors (self-perceived stress, parafunctions, occlusal interferences, history of orthodontic treatment, and/or extraction).
Results: The most common sign observed in the selected subjects was the joint sound (clicking) (42%), followed by mandibular deviation 39% as the second most common sign. Myofascial pain (MFP) (single or multiple diagnoses) was the most frequent diagnosis (n = 40, 76%), followed by disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) (32.1%), arthralgia (30%), and disc displacement without reduction (DDWoR) (7.6%). More than one DC/TMD diagnosis was established in 63.2% of the patients. The risk factors like presence of clenching, stress perception, parafunctions, tooth wear, and occlusal interferences were significantly more frequent in all the cases than in the respective controls.
Conclusions: In the studied population, the presence of TMD was found to be positively related to factors namely female gender, parafunction, occlusal interferences, psychological stress, and tooth wear. Myofascial pain is the commonest diagnosis (either single or in combination). It is followed by DDWR (either single or in combination with others). Double diagnosis is also common.
Clinical significance: Temporomandibular disorders showed a female predilection and were found to be positively related to factors, viz., parafunction, occlusal interferences, stress, and tooth wear. Clinicians should also be aware of common clinical manifestations of TMDs and their related stomatognathic risk factors to provide comprehensive oral care and to identify such factors for disease prevention.
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