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VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Dimensional and Positional Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion with and without Temporomandibular Disorders

Maged S Alhammadi

Keywords : Cone–beam computed tomography, Joint spaces, Mandibular condyle, Skeletal class II malocclusion, Temporomandibular joint disorder

Citation Information : Alhammadi MS. Dimensional and Positional Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion with and without Temporomandibular Disorders. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (12):1203-1210.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3441

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: This study sought to evaluate dimensional and positional temporomandibular joint (TMJ) features in three-dimensions in skeletal class II malocclusion with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Materials and methods: A total of 91 (182 joints) adult patients were divided into the following two groups: (1) Group I – TMD (n = 56; 112 joints) and (2) group II – non-TMD (n = 35; 70 joints). Dimensional and positional TMJ characteristics including glenoid fossae, mandibular condyles, and joint spaces were assessed using cone–beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results: The mandibular fossa in the TMD group was significantly more lateral than in the non-TMD group, and the mandibular fossa anterior wall inclination to the horizontal plane showed a significantly more vertically inclined wall in the TMD group compared to the non-TMD group. Significantly vertical mandibular condylar changes in the form of less vertical inclination, more vertical position, and lower vertical dimension (height) in addition to more upward position within the joint space were found. The TMD group showed significantly decreased superior and posterior joint spaces in addition to significantly increased medial joint spaces. Conclusion: Patients with TMDs are associated with laterally positioned mandibular fossa with the more vertically inclined anterior wall. They are characterized by vertical mandibular condylar changes in the form of less vertical inclination, more vertical position, and lower vertical dimension (height) in addition to more upward positioning within the joint space is accompanied by a decrease in superior and posterior and an increase in medial joint spaces. Clinical significance: The TMJ characteristics of skeletal class II make it more susceptible to TMDs and any orthodontic and/or surgical interventions in a direction possibly change these characteristics are to be considered.

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