The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Periodontal and Dentition Status among Psychiatric Patients in Indore: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study

Sonali Gupta, Krishna Kumar Gollahalli Rangappa, Shikha Rani, Rajendran Ganesh, Pankaj Kukreja, Bhavna Jha Kukreja

Keywords : Depression, Oral health, Periodontal diseases, Schizophrenia

Citation Information : Gupta S, Rangappa KK, Rani S, Ganesh R, Kukreja P, Kukreja BJ. Periodontal and Dentition Status among Psychiatric Patients in Indore: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (12):1260-1266.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3451

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: To assess and record periodontal and dentition status among psychiatric patients using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form 1997. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences and PG Institute, Indore, among the inpatients and outpatients. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Institutional Review Board of Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, IBM version 20.0. Descriptive statistics was used to find the frequencies, mean, and standard deviation of variables considered in the study. Results: Among all the disorders, schizophrenia subjects had shallow pockets 28 (25.2%) and deep pockets 55 (49.5%). Only 2 (2.6%) study subjects who had major depressive disorder had more than 12 mm loss of attachment (LOA). The highest mean DMFT score was recorded for schizophrenia patients (13.0 ± 7.09). Conclusion: The results reveal an unmet need of projecting effective planning and implementation strategies toward the improvement of periodontal and dentition status health of the psychiatric patients. Clinical significance: The study highlights the importance of incorporating dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

PDF Share
  1. World Health Organization.
  2. Azarpazhooh A, Leake JL. Systematic review of the association between respiratory diseases and oral health. J Periodontol 2006;77(9):1465–1482. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2006.060010.
  3. Grossi SG, Genco RJ. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: A two-way relationship. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):51–61. DOI: 10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.51.
  4. Oral health in America: A report of the Surgeon General. J Calif Dent Assoc 2000;28(9):685–695. PMID: 11324049.
  5. Health Canada. A Report on Mental Illnesses in Canada. Ottawa, Canada; 2002.
  6. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Choosing Life: Special Report on Suicide Among Aboriginal People, Chapter 3. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing; 1995.
  7. Friedlander AA, Brill NQ. The dental management of patients with bipolar disorder. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61(6):579–581. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(86)90097-6.
  8. Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. Lancet 2007;369(9555): 51–59. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2.
  9. Jyoti B, Devi P, Srivastava R, Singh AR, Oral health status and treatment needs of psychiatric inpatients in Ranchi, India. 2012, J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2012;24(3):177–181. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1290.
  10. Schizophrenia and oral health – Review of literature. Balkan J Dent Med 2016;20:15–21. DOI: 10.1515/bjdm-2016-0002.
  11. Turner RJ, Avison WR. Status variations in stress exposure: Implications for the interpretation of research on race, socioeconomic status, and gender. J Health Soc Behav 2003;44(4):488–505. PMID: 15038145.
  12. Graber JA. Internalizing problems during adolescence. In: Lerner RM, Steinberg L (Eds.). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2004.
  13. Hankin B, Abramson L, Moffitt T, et al. Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol 1998;107(1):128–140. DOI: 10.1037//0021-843x.107.1.128.
  14. Wiesner M, Windle M, Freeman A. Work stress, substance use, and depression among young adult workers: An examination of main and moderator effect model. J Occup Health Psychol 2005;10(2):83–96. DOI: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.83.
  15. Zimmerman FJ, Christakis DA, Stoep AV. Tinker, tailor, soldier, patient: Work attributes and depression disparities among young adults. Soc Sci Med 2004;58(10):1889–1901. DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00410-6.
  16. Horwitz AV, McLaughlin J, Raskin White H. How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people. J Health Soc Behav 1998;39(2):124–136. PMID: 9642903.
  17. Moore KA, et al. Depression among moms: Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes for children. Research Brief, Publication #2006-1. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
  18. Thara R, Kamath S. Women and schizophrenia. Indian J Psychiatry 2015;57(Suppl 2):S246–S251. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.161487.
  19. Rajkumar S, Padmavathi R, Thara R, et al. Incidence of schizophrenia in an urban community in Madras. Indian J Psychiatry 1993;35(1):1821. PMID: 21776161.
  20. Dube KC, Kumar N. An epidemiological study of schizophrenia. J Biosoc Sci 1972;4(2):187–195.
  21. World Health Organization. World Health Report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.
  22. Varma VK, Wig NN, Phookun HR, et al. First-onset schizophrenia in the community: Relationship of urbanization with onset, early manifestations and typology. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;96(6): 431–438. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb09944.x.
  23. Gangadhar BN, Panner Selvan C, Subbakrishna DK, et al. Age-at-onset and schizophrenia: Reversed gender effect. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;105:317–319. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.1153.x.
  24. Jain M, Mathur A, Sawla L, et al. Oral health status of mentally disabled subjects in India. J Oral Sci 2009;51(3);333–340. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.51.333.
  25. Jayakumar HL, Jyothi D, Mahesh Chandra K, et al. Periodontal health among elderly psychiatric patients in Bangalore city — India. Pakistan Oral Dent J 2011;31(1):128–136.
  26. Gowda EM, Bhat PS, Swamy MM. Dental health requirements for psychiatric patients. MJAFI 2007; 63(4):328–330. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-1237(07)80007-4.
  27. Kenkre AM, Spadigan AE. Oral health and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients in India. Indian J Dent Res 2000;11(1):5–11. PMID: 11307250.
  28. Angelillo IF, Nobile CG, Pavia M, et al. Dental health and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients in Italy. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23(6):360–364. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1995.tb00263.x.
  29. Vigild M, Brinck JJ, Chirstensen J. Oral health and treatment needs among patients in psychiatric institutions for the elderly. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21(3):169–171. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1993.tb00745.x.
  30. Kumar M, Chandu GN, Shafiulla MD. Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients: One year descriptive cross-sectional study. IJDR 2006;17(4):171–177. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.29868.
  31. Albandar JM, Brunelle JA, Kingman A. Destructive periodontal disease in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States, 1988-1994. J Periodontol 1999;70(1):13–29. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1999.70.1.13.
  32. Kassab MM, Cohen RE. The etiology and prevalence of gingival recession. J Am Assoc 2003;134(2):220–225. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0137.
  33. Lucavechi T, Barberia E, Maroto M, et al. Self-injurious behavior in a patient with mental retardation: Review of the literature and a case report. Quintessence Int 2007;38(7):e393–e398. PMID: 17694202.
  34. Portilla MI, Mafla AC, Arteaga JJ. Periodontal status in female psychiatric patients. Colomb Med 2009;40(2):167–176.
  35. Lucchese C, Checchi L. The oral health status in mentally retarded institutionalized patients. Minerva Stomatol 1998;47(10):499–502. PMID: 9866962.
  36. Chu K-Y, Yang N-P, Chou P, et al. Factors associated with dental caries among institutionalized residents with schizophrenia in Taiwan: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2010;10:482. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-482.
  37. Farhadmollashahi L, Lashkaripour K, Bakhshani N-M, et al. Dental health status in hospitalized psychiatric patients in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran. Health Scope 2014;3(4):e21626. DOI: 10.17795/jhealthscope-21626.
  38. Jovanović S, Milovanović SD, Gajić I, et al. Oral health status of psychiatric in-patients in Serbia and implications for their dental care. Croat Med J 2010;51(5):443–450. DOI: 10.3325/cmj.2010.51.443.
  39. Zusman SP, Ponizovsky AM, Dekel D, et al. An assessment of the dental health of chronic institutionalized patients with psychiatric disease in Israel. Spec Care Dentist 2010;30(1):18–22. DOI: 10.1111/j. 1754-4505.2009.00118.x.
  40. Lewis S, Jagger RG, Treasure E. The oral health of psychiatric in-patients in South Wales. Spec Care Dentist 2001;21(5):182–186. DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-4505.2001.tb00252.x.
  41. Ramon T, Grinshpoon A, Zusman SP, et al. Oral health and treatment needs of institutionalized chronic psychiatric patients in Israel. Eur Psychiatry 2003;18(3):101–105. DOI: 10.1016/s0924-9338(03) 00023-3.
  42. Kebede B, Kemal T, Abera S. Oral health status of patients with mental disorders in southwest Ethiopia. PLoS One 2012;7(6):e39142. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039142.
  43. Rekha R, Hiremath SS, Bharath S. Oral health status and treatments of hospitalized psychiatric patients in Bangalore city: A comparative study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20(2):63–67. PMID: 12435019.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.