Citation Information :
Dinesh S, Sivakumar A, Nivethigaa B, Alshehri A, Awadh W, Alam MK, Bhandi S, Raj AT, Patil S. Reliability of Frankfort Horizontal Plane with True Horizontal Plane in Cephalometric Measurements. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (6):601-605.
Introduction: The purpose of the study is to determine reliability of true horizontal (TH) plane with Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane in cephalometric measurements.
Materials and methods: One hundred lateral cephalograms were collected and traced using FACAD software, all cephalometric measurements which included FH plane as reference planes were used in this study. Cephalometric tracing was done with FH plane as reference plane and another set of measurements with TH plane as reference plane was done. Statistical tests were done using independent sample t-test (p <0.05).
Results: Results of an independent t-test revealed a statistically insignificant difference that was observed for all the parameters assessed (p <0.05). Both angular and linear measurements showed an insignificant difference between FH and TH.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the results show that the FH plane is closest and as reliable as the TH plane. The variation of FH was least for all the parameters assessed.
Jacobson A, Jacobson RL (2006). Radiographic cephalometry: From basics to 3D imaging. 2nd edition, chapter 1, Chicago: Quintessence Pub.
Lundström F, Lundström A. Natural head position as a basis for cephalometric analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1992;101(3):244−247. DOI: 10.1016/0889-5406(92)70093-P.
Moorrees CFA, Kean MR. Natural head position, a basic consideration in the interpretation of cephalometric radiographs. Am J Phys Anthropol 1958;16(2):213–234. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.1330160206.
Madsen DP, Sampson WJ, Townsend GC. Craniofacial reference plane variation and natural head position. Eur J Orthod 2008;30(5):532–540. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjn031.
Solow B, Tallgren A. Head posture and craniofacial morphology. Am J Phys Anthropol 1976;44(3):417–435. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.1330440306.
Cleall JF. Deglutition: A study of form and function. Am J Orthod 1965;51(8):566–594. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(65)90028-X.
Showfety KJ, Vig PS, Matteson S. A simple method for taking natural-head-position cephalograms. Am J Orthod 1983;83(6):495–500. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9416(83)90248-8.
Lundstrom A, Lundstrom F, Lebret LML, et al. Natural head position and natural head orientation: Basic considerations in cephalometric analysis and research. Eur J Orthod 1995;17(2):111–120. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/17.2.111.
Üşümez S, Orhan M. Inclinometer method for recording and transferring natural head position in cephalometrics. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2001;120(6):664–670. DOI: 10.1067/mod.2001.117201.
Kim DS, Yang HJ, Huh KH, et al. Three-dimensional natural head position reproduction using a single facial photograph based on the POSIT method. J Cranio-Maxillofacial Surg 2014;42(7):1315–1321. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2014.03.017.
Bansal N, Singla J, Gera G, et al. Reliability of natural head position in orthodontic diagnosis: A cephalometric study. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3(2):180–183. DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.96824.
Raju DS, Naidu DL. Reliability and reproducibility of natural head position: A cephalometric study. J Indian Orthod Soc 2012;46:340–347. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1117.
Cooke MS. Cephalometric analyses based on natural head posture of Chinese children in Hong Kong. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hong Kong. 1986. Published online. DOI: 10.5353/th_b3123083.
Pancherz H, Gökbuget K. The reliability of the Frankfort Horizontal in roentgenographic cephalometry. Eur J Orthod 1996;18(1):367–372. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/18.1.367.
Zebeib AM, Naini FB. Variability of the inclination of anatomic horizontal reference planes of the craniofacial complex in relation to the true horizontal line in orthognathic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2014;146(6):740–747. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.08.012.
Dmitriev MO, Kondratyuk AI, Semenenko ON, et al. Holdaway's soft-tissue cephalometri analysis norms for the Ukranian population. World Med Biol 2018;14(65):063. DOI: 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-3-65-63-68.
Al-Azemi R, Artun J. Posteroanterior cephalometric norms for an adolescent Kuwaiti population. Eur J Orthod 2012;34(3):312–317. DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjr007.
Imani MM, Farzaneh S, Ghanbari A, et al. Cephalometric norms in an Iranian Kurdish population according to the Steiner analysis. Iran J Orthod 2019;In Press(In Press). DOI: 10.5812/ijo.63439.
Hall–Scott J. The maxillary-mandibular planes angle (MMo) bisector: A new reference plane for anteroposterior measurement of the dental bases. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1994;105(6):583–591. DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(94)70143-1.
Afrand M, Ling CP, Khosrotehrani S, et al. Anterior cranial-base time-related changes: A systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2014;146(1):21–32.e6. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.03.019.
BJORK A. The significance of growth changes in facial pattern and their relationship to changes in occlusion. Dent Rec (London). 1951;71(10):197–208. PMID: 14887399.
Ellis 3rd E, McNamara Jr J. Cephalometric reference planes: Sella–Nasion vs Frankfort horizontal. Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surgery 1988;3(2):81–87.
Shetty D, Bagga DK, Goyal S, et al. A cephalometric study of various horizontal reference planes in natural head position. J Indian Orthod Soc 2013;47:143–147. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1146.
Dvortsin DP, Ye Q, Pruim GJ, et al. Reliability of the integrated radiograph–photograph method to obtain natural head position in cephalometric diagnosis. Angle Orthod 2011;81(5):889–894. DOI: 10.2319/010411-2.1.
Moorrees C, Kean M. Natural head position, a basic consideration in the interpretation of cephalometric radiographs. Am J Orthod 1959;45(10):785–791. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9416(59)90124-1.