Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of patients undergoing dental treatment in relation to cannabis use.
Materials and methods: A comprehensive questionnaire was used to address the type of cannabis preparations, route of intake, frequency of usage, and potential reasoning for use (recreational vs medical use) of patients from the MGH Dental Group.
Results: Seventy-six adult patients completed the survey. Sixty-one percent of the participants were female, with the majority (59%) of the participants being ≥51 years or older. Twelve of the 76 participants (16%) were 18–30 years old. The remaining 19 patients (25%) who participated in the study were 31−50 years old. The sample included participants who were predominately non-Hispanic (63 patients, 83%) and White (59 patients, 78%). The majority of patients either had their first use of cannabis prior to 18 years of age (36%) or did not respond to this question (34%) at all. The predominant age at consistent cannabis use was 18–30 years (13%). The most common method of cannabis intake in the preceding year for participants was smoking, followed by ingesting, using cannabidiol (CBD), and vaping (least common). Recreational cannabis use was reported in 47% of the participants vs 28% of participants who reported cannabis intake for medical use.
Conclusion: This preliminary study characterized the profile of patients undergoing dental treatment in relation to marijuana use. Diminishing restraints to cannabis use may affect the dental profession.
Clinical significance: It is important for dentists to understand cannabis-related oral health conditions to provide customized patient treatments.
Le A, Palamar JJ. Oral health implications of increased cannabis use among older adults: Another public health concern? J Subst Use 2019;24(1):61–65. DOI: 10.1080/14659891.2018.1508518.
Shariff J, Ahluwalia K, Papapanou P. Relationship between frequent recreational cannabis (marijuana and hashish) use and periodontitis in adults in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 2011 to 2012. J Periodontol 2017;88(3):273–280. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2016.160370.
Cho CM, Hirsch R, Johnstone S. General and oral health implications of cannabis use. Aust Dent J 2005;50(2):70–74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2005.tb00343.x.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. PEP19-5068, NSDUH Series H-54). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2019. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
Klein KP, Guastaldi FPS, Pereira HSG, et al. Dronabinol inhibits alveolar bone remodeling in tooth movement of rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2022;161(3):e215–e222. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2021.07.012.
Van Dolah H, Bauer B, Mauck K. Clinicians’ guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. Mayo Clinic Proc 2019;94(9):1840–1851. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.003.
White CM. A review of human studies assessing cannabidiol's (CBD) therapeutic actions and potential. Journ of Clinc Pharm 2019;59(7):923–934. DOI: 10.1002/jcph.1387.
Chiu V, Leung J, Hall W, et al. Public health impacts to date of the legalisation of medical and recreational cannabis use in the USA. Neuropharmacology 2021;193:108610. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108610.
Hall W, Stjepanović D, Caulkins J, et al. Public health implications of legalising the production and sale of cannabis for medicinal and recreational use. Lancet 2019;394(10208):1580–1590. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31789-1.
Carrell DS, Cronkite DJ, Shea M, et al. Clinical documentation of patient-reported medical cannabis use in primary care: Toward scalable extraction using natural language processing methods. Subs Abus 2022;43(1):917–924. DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2021. 1986767.
Bourdon JL, Francis MW, Jia L, et al. The effect of cannabis policies on treatment outcomes for cannabis use among U.S. adults. J Subst Abuse Treat 2021;131:108535. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108535.
Boehnke KF, McAfee J, Ackerman JM, et al. Medication and substance use increases among people using cannabis medically during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Drug Policy 2021;92:103053. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.103053.
Zinke A, Hannig C, Berth H. Comparing oral health in patients with different levels of dental anxiety. Head Face Med 2018;14(1):25. DOI: 10.1186/s13005-018-0182-4.
Pachimsawat P, Tangprasert K, Jantaratnotai N. The calming effect of roasted coffee aroma in patients undergoing dental procedures. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):1384. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-80910-0.
Abidi AH, Alghamdi SS, Derefinko K. A critical review of cannabis in medicine and dentistry: A look back and the path forward. Clin Exp Dent Res 2022;8(3):613–631. DOI: 10.1002/cre2.564.
Ditmyer M, Demopoulos C, McClain M, et al. The effect of tobacco and marijuana use on dental health status in Nevada adolescents: Atrend analysis. J Adolesc Health 2013;52(5):641–648. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.11.002.
Del Boca FK, Noll JA. Truth or consequences: The validity of self-report data in health services research on addictions. Addiction 2000;95 Suppl 3:S347–S360. DOI: 10.1080/09652140020004278.
Rutherford MJ, Cacciola JS, Alterman AI, et al. Contrasts between admitters and deniers of drug use. J Subst Abuse Treat 2000;18(4): 343–348. DOI: 10.1016/s0740-5472(99)00079-3.