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VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2023 ) > List of Articles


The Efficacy of Apple Cider Vinegar at Different pH Values as an Antimicrobial Agent: An In Vitro Study

Prasanna Chandraseharan, S Nagarajan MP Sockalingam, Zaleha Shafiei, Ahmad Shuhud Irfani Zakaria, Alida Mahyuddin, Mariati Abdul Rahman

Keywords : Acetic acid, Antimicrobial activity, Apple cider vinegar, pH, Pulp canal disinfection

Citation Information : Chandraseharan P, Sockalingam SN, Shafiei Z, Zakaria AS, Mahyuddin A, Rahman MA. The Efficacy of Apple Cider Vinegar at Different pH Values as an Antimicrobial Agent: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (10):779-786.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3581

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aims and background: This study evaluates the antimicrobial activities of commercially available 5% apple cider vinegar (ACV) against Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei. Materials and methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were conducted using the broth microdilution method. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of 5.25% was used as a positive control, and comparisons were also made with acetic acid (AA) as the main ingredient in ACV. The three test bacteria treated with the most effective ACV dilution were visualized under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural changes. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 0.625% of the concentration of ACV against S. mutans and E. faecalis and 1.25% of the concentration of ACV against L. casei with two-fold serial dilutions. A concentration of 5 × 10–1% with 10-fold serial dilutions was found to be the MIC value for all three bacteria. No significant differences were found when compared with the positive control (NaOCl) (p = 0.182, p = 0.171, and p = 0.234), respectively, for two-fold serial dilutions and (p = 1.000, p = 0.658, and p = 0.110), respectively for 10-fold serial dilutions. MBC was observed to be 5% ACV for both E. faecalis and S. mutans. However, positive microbial growth was observed on the agar plate when cultured with L. casei. An independent sample t-test showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the antimicrobial activities between 5% ACV and 5% pure AA. TEM revealed cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane disruptions on all three bacteria at MIC value. Conclusion: Apple cider vinegar has antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei at their respective MIC values. Clinical significance: Apple cider vinegar can be an alternative antimicrobial dental pulp disinfectant to sodium hypochlorite. Apple cider vinegar can be used safely, especially in children's dental pulp therapy and deep caries management, when adequate tooth isolation is not readily achievable. Thus, adverse reactions commonly associated with other frequently used chemical disinfectants can be avoided.

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