The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Sargassum polycystum and Turbinaria conoides Seaweed-based Novel Denture Cleanser: An In Vitro Study

Shivasakthy Manivasakan, David Livingstone, Jahnavi Madaan

Keywords : Candida albicans, Denture cleanser, Sargassum polycystum, Seaweed, Streptococcus mutans, Turbinaria conoides

Citation Information : Manivasakan S, Livingstone D, Madaan J. Sargassum polycystum and Turbinaria conoides Seaweed-based Novel Denture Cleanser: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (4):261-267.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3498

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 15-06-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: The study ventures into evaluating the antifungal and antibacterial efficacy of commercially available denture cleanser with Sargassum polycystum, Turbinaria conoides seaweeds, and the combination of seaweeds. Materials and methods: Poly(methyl methacrylate) disks measuring 10 x 2 mm were fabricated. The samples are divided into four groups of 21 samples each. The denture base was coated with Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans individually. Group I was treated with Fittydent, group II (S. polycystum and T. conoides seaweeds combination), group III (S. polycystum), and group IV (T. conoides). The colony-formation units present on the surface of the denture were evaluated before and after treatment with different denture cleansers using the serial dilution method. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results: At 10−5 dilution, T. conoides (group IV) was statistically significant in reducing both C. albicans and S. mutans. At 10–10 dilution, T. conoides (group IV) and S. polycystum and T. conoides combination (group II) had high antibacterial efficacy and were statistically significant. Fittydent (group I) had higher antifungal efficacy and was statistically significant in comparison to S. polycystum (group III) alone. At 10–10 dilution, the T. conoides (group IV), S. polycystum, and T. conoides combination (group II) showed no evidence of a significant difference in comparison to Fittydent (group I). Fittydent had higher antibacterial efficacy and was statistically significant in comparison to S. polycystum (group III) alone. Conclusion: Sargassum polycystum and T. conoides combination and T. conoides were found to have higher antibacterial efficacy in comparison to commercially available denture cleanser and also were found to have equal antifungal efficacy in comparison to commercially available denture cleanser.

  1. Peltzer K, Hewlett S, Yawson AE, et al. Prevalence of loss of all teeth (edentulism) and associated factors in older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11(11):11308–11324. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1181_19.
  2. Al-Rafee MA. The epidemiology of edentulism and the associated factors: a literature review. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9(4):1841–1843. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1181_19.
  3. Sadig W. The denture hygiene, denture stomatitis and role of dental hygienist. Int J Dent Hyg 2010;8(3):227–231. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00413.x.
  4. Baena-Monroy T, Moreno-Maldonado V, Franco-Martínez F, et al. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans colonization in patients wearing dental prosthesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2005;10(Suppl. 1):E27–E39.
  5. Salles MM, Badaró MM, Arruda CNF, et al. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – A randomized clinical study. J Appl Oral Sci 2015;23(6):637–642. DOI: 10.1590/1678-775720150204.
  6. Jain SG, Magdum D, Karagir A, et al. Denture cleansers: A review. OSR J Dent Med Sci 2015;14(2):94–96. DOI: 10.9790/0853-14249496.
  7. Kalekar A, Hipparkar M, Karande S, et al. Herbal denture cleanser: Examples and recent developments. J Bio Innovat 2022;11(2);538–549. DOI: 10.46344/JBINO.2022.v11i02.26.
  8. Remya RR, Samrot AV, Suresh Kumar S, et al. Bioactive potential of brown algae. Adsorp Sci Technol 2022;13. DOI: 10.1155/2022/9104835.
  9. Cervino G, Fiorillo L, Herford AS, et al. Alginate materials and dental impression technique: A current state of the art and application to dental practice. Mar Drugs 2018;17(1):18. DOI: 10.3390/md17010018.
  10. Stengel DB, Connan S, Popper ZA. Algal chemodiversity and bioactivity: Sources of natural variability and implications for commercial application. Biotechnol Adv 2011;29(5):483–501. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.016.
  11. Anil S, Venkatesan J, Chalisserry EP, et al. Applications of seaweed polysaccharides in dentistry. In: Seaweed polysaccharides; 2017. pp. 331–340. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809816-5.00017-7.
  12. Balasubramaniam A, Arumugham IM, Nathan PS, et al. Emerging technologies and potential applications of algae in dentistry – A critical review. J Biotechnol 2022;360:1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2022.09.021.
  13. Lomartire S, Gonçalves AMM. An overview of potential seaweed-derived bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications. Mar Drugs 2022;20(2):141. DOI: 10.3390/md20020141.
  14. Jensen A. Present and future needs for algae and algal products. Fourteenth International Seaweed Symposium Hydrobiologia 1993. p. 15–23. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-1998-6_2.
  15. Nazarudin MF, Alias NH, Balakrishnan S, et al. Chemical, nutrient and physicochemical properties of brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae) collected from Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia. Molecules 2021;26(17):5216. DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175216.
  16. Dharmautama M, Manggau MA, Tetelepta R, et al. The effectiveness of Sargassum polycystum extract against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans as denture cleanser. J Int Dent Med Res 2019;12(2):528–532.
  17. Anthony DH, Gibbons P. The nature and behavior of denture cleansers. J Prosthet Dent 1958;8:796. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(58)90100-8.
  18. Ribeiro Rocha GDS, Neves Duarte T, de Oliveira Corrêa G, et al. Chemical cleaning methods for prostheses colonized by Candida spp.: A systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2020;124(6):653–658. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.10.004.
  19. Uludamar A, Ozkan YK, Kadir T, et al. In vivo efficacy of alkaline peroxide tablets and mouthwashes on Candida albicans in patients with denture stomatitis. J Appl Oral Sci 2010;18(3):291–296. DOI: 10.1590/s1678-77572010000300017.
  20. Faot F, Cavalcanti YW, Mendonça e Bertolini Md, et al. Efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser on the Candida albicans biofilm formed on poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects on residual biofilm and recolonization process. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:77. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-77.
  21. Nevalainen MJ, Nahri TO, Ainamo A. Oral mucosal lesions and oral hygiene habits in the home-living elderly. J Oral Rehabil 1997;24:332–337. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1997.d01-298.x.
  22. Beyari MM. Tissue inflammatory response and salivary Streptococcus mutans count with three different denture cleansers. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011;5:965–974. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR10.083.
  23. Abelson DC. Denture plaque and denture cleansers. J Prosthet Dent 1981;45(4):376–379. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(81)90094-9.
  24. Murata H, Chimari H, Hong G, et al. Compatibility of tissue conditioners and denture cleansers: Influence on surface conditions. Dent Mater J 2010;29(4):446–453. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2009-135.
  25. Kumar MN, Thippeswamy HM, Raghavendra Swamy KN, et al. Efficacy of commercial and household denture cleansers against Candida albicans adherent to acrylic denture base resin: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23(1):39–42. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.99036.
  26. Shibu A, Dhanam S. In vitro antifungal activity of Turbinaria conoides collected from Mandapam Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Life Sci Leaflet 2016;74:12–17. DOI: 10.19071/jes.2016.v7.3057.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.