The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Different Glide Path Files in Simulated Double Curved Canal in Continuous Rotary Motion: An In Vitro Study

Balaji Dhakshinamurthi, Manigandan Kuzhanchinathan

Keywords : Cyclic fatigue, Double curvature, Glide path files, TruNatomy files

Citation Information : Dhakshinamurthi B, Kuzhanchinathan M. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Different Glide Path Files in Simulated Double Curved Canal in Continuous Rotary Motion: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (5):337-341.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3510

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 07-07-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: This in vitro study aimed to compare and evaluate the resistance to cyclic fatigue of a newly developed glide path file in a simulated double curvature canal in a cyclic fatigue-testing machine. Methods: In this in vitro study, a static cyclic fatigue-testing machine with a simulated double curve was created and the samples were divided into the following three groups: Group I—HyFlex EDM; group II—TruNatomy file; and group III—Aurum G files and each instrument is continued to rotate in the canal and a number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and Fractographic analysis was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis was done using parametric methods one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows statistical significance between groups and then Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were used for multiple pairwise comparisons. TruNatomy glide path files had the highest cyclic fatigue resistance when compared to HyFlex EDM and Aurum G files. Conclusion: The selection of file systems in cleaning and shaping protocols is an enigma to endodontics. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that TruNatomy files had higher cyclic fatigue resistance than other glide path files are canals with double curvature, hence it is suitable for usage in root canals with extreme curvature. Clinical significance: The selection of file systems in cleaning and shaping protocols is an enigma to endodontics. This in vitro study explored the selection protocols for the execution of root canal preparation. Heat treatment of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic files had improved the cyclic fatigue resistance significantly enhancing the clinical life of file systems.

  1. Uygun AD, Unal M, Falakaloglu S, et al. Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of Hyflex EDM, Vortex Blue, ProTaper Gold, and One Curve nickel–Titanium instruments. Niger J Clin Pract 2020;23(1): 41–45. DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_343_19.
  2. Parashos P, Messer HH. Rotary NiTi instrument fracture and its consequences. J Endod 2006;32(11):1031–1043. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen. 2006.06.008.
  3. Esposito PT, Cunningham CJ. A comparison of canal preparation with nickel–titanium and stainless steel instruments. J Endod 1995;21(4):173–176. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(06)80560-1.
  4. Ok E, Ertas H, Uysal B. Effect of separated rotary instruments on the apical microleakage of root canal fillings. Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekim Fakültesi Derg 2015;24(2):246–251. DOI: 10.17567/dfd.21241.
  5. Pruett JP, Clement DJ, Carnes DL Jr. Cyclic fatigue testing of nickel–titanium endodontic instruments. J Endod 1997;23(2):77–85. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(97)80250-6.
  6. Sattapan B, Nervo GJ, Palamara JE, et al. Defects in rotary nickel–titanium files after clinical use. J Endod 2000;26(3):161–165. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200003000-00008.
  7. Shen Y, Cheung GS-P, Peng B, et al. Defects in nickel–titanium instruments after clinical use. Part 2: Fractographic analysis of fractured surface in a cohort study. J Endod 2009;35(1):133–136. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.10.013.
  8. Fangli T, Maki K, Kimura S, et al. Assessment of mechanical properties of WaveOne Gold Primary reciprocating instruments. Dent Mater J 2019;38(3):490–495. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2018-203.
  9. Kaval ME, Capar ID, Ertas H. Evaluation of the cyclic fatigue and torsional resistance of novel nickel–titanium rotary files with various alloy properties. J Endod 2016;42:1840–1843. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.07.015.
  10. Elnaghy AM, Elsaka SE. Evaluation of root canal transportation, centering ratio, and remaining dentin thickness associated with ProTaper Next instruments with and without glide path. J Endod 2014;40(12):2053–2056. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.09.001.
  11. Topçuoğlu HS, Düzgün S, Akpek F, et al. Influence of a glide path on apical extrusion of debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals. Int Endod J 2016;49(6):599–603. DOI: 10.1111/iej.12484.
  12. De-Deus G, Belladonna FG, Souza EM, et al. Scouting ability of 4 pathfinding instruments in moderately curved molar canals. J Endod 2016;42(10):1540–1544. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.07.001.
  13. Yared G. Canal preparation using only one Ni-Ti rotary instrument: Preliminary observations. Int Endod J 2008;41(4):339–344. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2007.01351.x.
  14. Shen Y, Tra C, Hieawy A, et al. Effect of torsional and fatigue preloading on HyFlex EDM files. J Endod 2018;44(4):643–647. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.12.002.
  15. Çapar ID, Arslan H. A review of instrumentation kinematics of engine-driven nickel–titanium instruments. Int Endod J 2016;49(2):119–135. DOI: 10.1111/iej.12432.
  16. Al-Sudani D, Grande NM, Plotino G, et al. Cyclic fatigue of nickel–titanium rotary instruments in a double (S-shaped) simulated curvature. J Endod 2012;38(7):987–989. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.03.025.
  17. Hashem AAR, Mahgoub MME, Ahmed HMA. Endodontic management of a maxillary lateral incisor with an unusual root dilaceration diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography. Saudi Endod J 2017;24(2):12–19. DOI: 10.12816/0038551.
  18. Sakkir N, Thaha KA, Nair MG, et al. Management of dilacerated and S-shaped root canals: an endodontist's challenge. J Clin Diagn Res JCDR 2014;8:ZD22-24. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/9100.4520.
  19. Udoye CI, Jafarzadeh H. Dilaceration among Nigerians: prevalence, distribution, and its relationship with trauma. Dent Traumatol 2009;25(4):439–441. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2009.00796.x.
  20. Malcić A, Jukić S, Brzović V, et al. Prevalence of root dilaceration in adult dental patients in Croatia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;102(1):104–109. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.08.021.
  21. Jafarzadeh H, Abbott PV. Ledge formation: Review of a great challenge in endodontics. J Endod 2007;33(10):1155–1162. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2007.07.015.
  22. Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: A review. J Endod 2004;30(8):559–567. DOI: 10.1097/01.don.0000129039.59003.9d.
  23. Vorster M, van der Vyver PJ, Paleker F. Canal transportation and centering ability of WaveOne Gold in combination with and without different glide path techniques. J Endod 2018;44(9):1430–1435. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.06.003.
  24. Serefoglu B, Kaval ME, Kurt SM, et al. Cyclic fatigue resistance of novel glide path instruments with different alloy properties and kinematics. J Endod 2018;44(9):1422–1424. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.05.013.
  25. Cheung GSP, Peng B, Bian Z, et al. Defects in ProTaper S1 instruments after clinical use: Fractographic examination. Int Endod J 2005;38(11):802–809. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2005.01020.x.
  26. The Canadian Academy of Endodontics. Standards of practice. 2022. Available at: Accessed on: 5 May 2023.
  27. Lopes HP, Elias CN, Vieira VTL, et al. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel–titanium rotary instruments. J Endod 2010;36(10):1653–1657. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2010.06.026.
  28. Condorelli GG, Bonaccorso A, Smecca E, et al. Improvement of the fatigue resistance of NiTi endodontic files by surface and bulk modifications. Int Endod J 2010;43(10):866–873. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2010.01759.x.
  29. Riyahi AM, Bashiri A, Alshahrani K, et al. Cyclic fatigue comparison of TruNatomy, Twisted File, and ProTaper Next rotary systems. Int J Dent 2020;2020:3190938. DOI: 10.1155/2020/3190938.
  30. Oral Health Group. Minimally invasive endodontics using a new single-file rotary system. 2020. Available at: Accessed on: 5 May 2023.
  31. Wang FF, Yang YJ, Hou XM. Surface microstructure and cyclic fatigue resistance of electro discharged machining nickel–titanium endodontic instrument. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2018;50(5):876–881. PMID: 30337751.
  32. Pramanik A, Basak AK, Littlefair G, et al. Methods and variables in electrical discharge machining of titanium alloy: A review. Heliyon 2020;6:e05554. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05554.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.