The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 6 ( June, 2023 ) > List of Articles


The Effects of Calcium Hydroxide–loaded Poly (Lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Biodegradable Nanoparticles in the ex vivo External Inflammatory Root Resorption Model

Patcharaporn Chaiyosang, Thanisorn Mahatnirunkul, Warat Leelapornpisid

Keywords : Calcium hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable nanoparticles, External inflammatory root resorption

Citation Information : Chaiyosang P, Mahatnirunkul T, Leelapornpisid W. The Effects of Calcium Hydroxide–loaded Poly (Lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Biodegradable Nanoparticles in the ex vivo External Inflammatory Root Resorption Model. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (6):351-356.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3522

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 28-07-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: To evaluate the calcium ions (Ca2+) diffusion of calcium hydroxide-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable nanoparticles [Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs] compared with conventional Ca(OH)2 in a simulated external root resorption ex vivo model using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Materials and methods: Thirty human mandibular premolars were prepared by sectioning the root segments to create roots measuring 10 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were instrumented and irrigated. The external root surface cavities were created. The specimens were randomly divided into the following three groups: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA; control group, n = 10), conventional calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] (Metapaste, n = 10), and Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs [15% Ca(OH)2, n = 10]. The intracanal materials were placed in the root canals, and the teeth were stored in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. The release of Ca2+ was measured at 7, 30, and 60 days using ICP-MS. Results: Both Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs and Metapaste groups exhibited higher levels of Ca2+ release compared to the PLGA group at all time points. During the initial 7-day period, the Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs exhibited a significantly greater release of Ca2+ compared to Metapaste. From day 7 to day 30, Metapaste displayed a significantly higher release of Ca2+ than the Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs, but it experienced a subsequent decline in Ca2+ release after the 30-day period. After the 30-day mark, the Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs once again exhibited a significantly higher release of Ca2+ compared to Metapaste. Conclusion: The Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs exhibited sustained release of Ca2+ that exceeded conventional Ca(OH)2, particularly during the first week, demonstrating a greater amount of Ca2+ release. Clinical significance: The utilization of Ca(OH)2-loaded PLGA NPs as an intracanal medication for external inflammatory root resorption provided sustained release and had the potential to enhance the efficacy of inhibiting root resorption more effectively than conventional Ca(OH)2.

  1. Fuss Z, Tsesis I, Lin S. Root resorption: Diagnosis, classification and treatment choices based on stimulation factors. Dent Traumatol 2003;19(4):175–182. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-9657.2003.00192.x.
  2. Tronstad L. Root resorption: Etiology, terminology and clinical manifestations. Endod Dent Traumatol 1988;4(6):241–252. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1988.tb00642.x.
  3. Soares AJ, Souza GA, Pereira AC, et al. Frequency of root resorption following trauma to permanent teeth. J Oral Sci 2015;57(2):73–78. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.57.73.
  4. Abbott PV. Prevention and management of external inflammatory resorption following trauma to teeth. Aust Dent J 2016;61(Suppl. 1): 82–94. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12400.
  5. Galler KM, Grätz EM, Widbiller M, et al. Pathophysiological mechanisms of root resorption after dental trauma: A systematic scoping review. BMC Oral Health 2021;21(1):163. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01510-6.
  6. Bourguignon C, Cohenca N, Lauridsen E, et al. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 1. Fractures and luxations. Dent Traumatol 2020;36(4):314–330. DOI: 10.1111/edt.12578.
  7. Andreasen JO, Farik B, Munksgaard EC. Long-term calcium hydroxide as a root canal dressing may increase risk of root fracture. Dent Traumatol 2002;18(3):134–137. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-9657.2002.00097.x.
  8. Portenier I, Haapasalo H, Rye A, et al. Inactivation of root canal medicaments by dentine, hydroxylapatite and bovine serum albumin. Int Endod J 2001;34(3):184–188. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2001.00366.x.
  9. Wilczewska AZ, Niemirowicz K, Markiewicz KH, et al. Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Pharmacol Rep 2012;64(5):1020–1037. DOI: 10.1016/s1734-1140(12)70901-5.
  10. Elmsmari F, Sánchez JAG, Duran–Sindreu F, et al. Calcium hydroxide-loaded PLGA biodegradable nanoparticles as an intracanal medicament. Int Endod J 2021;54(11):2086–2098. DOI: 10.1111/iej.13603.
  11. Dianat O, Saedi S, Kazem M, et al. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticle calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study. Iran Endod J 2015;10(1):39–43. PMID: 25598808.
  12. Dianat O, Azadnia S, Mozayeni MA. Toxicity of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles on murine fibroblast cell line. Iran Endod J 2015;10(1): 49–54. PMID: 25598810.
  13. Hadjidakis DJ, Androulakis II. Bone remodeling. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1092:385–396. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1365.035.
  14. Cerda–Cristerna BI, Breceda–Leija A, Méndez–González V, et al. Sustained release of calcium hydroxide from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid microspheres for apexification. Odontology 2016;104(3):318–323. DOI: 10.1007/s10266-015-0213-6.
  15. Rosner B. Fundamentals of Biostatics, 5th edition. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, Inc., 2000.
  16. Chamberlain TM, Kirkpatrick TC, Rutledge RE. pH changes in external root surface cavities after calcium hydroxide is placed at 1, 3 and 5 mm short of the radiographic apex. Dent Traumatol 2009;25(5):470–474. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2009.00806.x.
  17. Carrotte P. Endodontics: Part 9. Calcium hydroxide, root resorption, endo–perio lesions. Br Dent J 2004;197(12):735–743. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811897.
  18. Narita H, Itoh S, Imazato S, et al. An explanation of the mineralization mechanism in osteoblasts induced by calcium hydroxide. Acta Biomater 2010;6(2):586–590. DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.08.005.
  19. Wang S, Sasaki Y, Ogata Y. Calcium hydroxide regulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription in human osteoblast-like Saos2 cells. J Oral Sci 2011;53(1):77–86. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.53.77.
  20. Burkersroda Fv, Schedl L, Göpferich A. Why degradable polymers undergo surface erosion or bulk erosion. Biomaterials 2002;23(21):4221–4231. DOI: 10.1016/s0142-9612(02)00170-9.
  21. Sim S, Wong NK. Nanotechnology and its use in imaging and drug delivery (Review). Biomed Rep 2021;14(5):42. DOI: 10.3892/br.2021.1418.
  22. Farzaneh B, Azadnia S, Fekrazad R. Comparison of the permeability rate of nanoparticle calcium hydroxide and conventional calcium hydroxide using a fluorescence microscope. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2018;15(6):385–390. PMID: 30534165.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.