The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 8 ( August, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Tooth Shade and Blood Type: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study in Tunisia

Imen Kalghoum, Ilhem Ben Othmen, Emna Boudabous, Leyla Ben Salem, Dalenda Hadyaoui

Keywords : Age, Blood type, Color, Correlation, Cross-sectional study, Gender, Investigation, Tooth shade

Citation Information : Kalghoum I, Othmen IB, Boudabous E, Salem LB, Hadyaoui D. Tooth Shade and Blood Type: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study in Tunisia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (8):560-565.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3538

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of tooth shade and its correlation with blood type. Materials and methods: This study analyzed 312 blood donors at the university Hospital in Monastir between November 2021 and June 2022. Both male and female subjects were included, with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years old. Patients with certain dental conditions or habits were excluded from the study. The study recorded various information about blood donors, including gender, age, governorate of origin, tooth shade, and blood type. The tooth shade values were recorded using A–D shade guide. Data input and tabulation were carried out using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS (version 25.0). Results: The study included 312 participants, with 85.58% males and 14.42% females. Tooth shade value B was the most prevalent (43%), and D was the least prevalent (7%). The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant link between tooth shade and blood type. However, there were three statistically significant categories: Blood type B/Tooth shade B, Blood type O/Tooth shade C, and Blood Type O/Tooth shade D. Conclusion: The study examined the link between tooth color and blood type but did not find a significant link. However, significant values were found in different subgroups. A wider selection of subjects and a more rigorous measurement equipment might lead to more favorable results. Clinical significance: By considering the patient's blood type alongside other relevant factors, clinicians can enhance the accuracy and precision of tooth shade selection, resulting in harmonious and natural-looking dental restorations. This approach improves patient satisfaction and acceptance.

  1. Veeraganta SK, Savadi RC, Baroudi K, et al. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2015;15(2):138–141. DOI: 10.4103/0972-4052.155035.
  2. Park JH, Lee YK, Lim BS. Influence of illuminants on the color distribution of shade guides. J Prosthet Dent 2006;96:402–411. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2006.10.007.
  3. Gozalo-Diaz D, Johnston WM, Wee AG. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;100(2):93–98. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(08)60155-9.
  4. Watts A, Addy M. Tooth discolouration and staining: A review of the literature. Br Dent J. 2001; 190:309–316. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4800959.
  5. Krastl G, Allgayer N, Lenherr P, et al. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a literature review. Dent traumat 2013;29(1):2–7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2012.01141.x.
  6. Zimmerli B, Jeger F, Lussi A. Bleaching of nonvital teeth. A clinically relevant literature review.Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2010;120(4):306–320. PMID: 20514558.
  7. Vadavadagi SV, Kumari KV, Choudhury GK, et al. Prevalence of tooth shade and its correlation with skin colour – A cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(2):ZC72–ZC74. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/16918.7324.
  8. Kurt A, Isik-Ozkol G. Conventional methods for selecting form, size, and color of maxillary anterior teeth: review of the literature. Eur J Prosthodont 2015;3(3):57–63. DOI:10.4103/2347-4610.166184.
  9. Turker N, Buyukkaplan US, Kurkcuoglu I, et al. Use of a new skin colour measurement method for the investigation of relationship between skin and tooth colour. Eur Oral Res. 2020;54(2):81–85. DOI: 10.26650/eor.20200090.
  10. Lagouvardos PE, Tsamali I, Papadopoulou C, et al. Tooth, skin, hair and eye colour interrelationships in Greek young adults. Odontology 2013J;101(1):75–83. DOI: 10.1007/s10266-012-0058-1.
  11. Dummett CO, Sakumura JS, Barens G. The relationship of facial skin complexion to oral mucosa pigmentation and tooth color. J Prosthet Dent 1980;43(4):392–396. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(80)90207-3.
  12. Sellen PN, Jagger DC, Harrison A. Methods used to select artificial anterior teeth for the edentulous patient: a historical overview. Int J Prosthodont 1999;12(1):51–58. PMID: 10196828.
  13. Dean L. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005. Chapter 2, 5, The ABO blood group.
  14. Yamamoto F, Clausen H, White T, et al. Molecular genetic basis of the histo-blood group ABO system. Nature 1990;345(6272):229–233. DOI: 10.1038/345229a0.
  15. Turgut S, Kilinç H, Eyüpoglu GB, et al. Color relationships of natural anterior teeth: an in vivo study. Niger J Clin Pract 2018;21(7):925–931. DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_361_17.
  16. Öngül D, Şermet B, Balkaya MC. Visual and instrumental evaluation of color match ability of 2 shade guides on a ceramic system. J Prosthet Dent 2012;108:9–14. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(12)60102-4.
  17. Oguro R, Nakajima M, Seki N, et al. The role of enamel thickness and refractive index on human tooth colour. J Dent 2016;51:36–44. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.05.010.
  18. Hlusko LJ, Suwa G, Kono RT, et al. Genetics and the evolution of primate enamel thickness: a baboon model. Am J Phys Anthropol 2004;124(3):223–233. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.10353.
  19. Horvath JE, Ramachandran GL, Fedrigo O, et al. Genetic comparisons yield insight into the evolution of enamel thickness during human evolution. J Hum Evol 2014;73:75–87. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.01.005.
  20. Smith CEL, Poulter JA, Antanaviciute A, et al. Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Genes, Proteins, and Pathways. Front Physiol 2017;8:435. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00435.
  21. Wright, J.T. Enamel phenotypes: genetic and environmental determinants. Genes 2023;14:545. DOI: 10.3390/genes14030545.
  22. Sharma V, Punia V, Khandelwal M, et al. A study of relationship between skin colour and tooth shade value in population of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Int J Dent Clin 2010;2(4):26–29. ISSN: 0975-8437.
  23. Alnusayri MO, Sghaireen MG, Mathew M, et al. Shade selection in esthetic dentistry: a review. Cureus 2022;14(3):e23331. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.23331
  24. Golonzhka O, Metzger D, Bornert JM, et al. Ctip2/Bcl11b controls ameloblast formation during mammalian odontogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106(11):4278–4283. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900568106.
  25. N’Guessan KS, N’Dindin AC, Koffi NJ, et al. [The complexion and color of teeth in a Black African population. Apropos of a sample of 240 subjects].Odontostomatol Trop 2001;24(95):25–28. PMID: 11808371.
  26. Haralur SB, Dibas AM, Almelhi NA, et al.The tooth and skin colour interrelationship across the different ethnic groups. Int J Dent 2014;2014:146028. DOI: 10.1155/2014/146028.
  27. Jahangiri L, Reinhardt SB, Mehra RV, et al. Relationship between tooth shade value and skin color: an observational study. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87(2):149–152. DOI: 10.1067/mpr.2002.121109.
  28. Esan TA, Olusile AO, Akeredolu PA. Factors influencing tooth shade selection for completely edentulous patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006;7(5):80–87. PMID: 17091143.
  29. Hassel AJ, Nitschke I, Dreyhaupt J, et al. Predicting tooth color from facial features and gender: results from a white elderly cohort. J Prosthet Dent 2008;99:101–106. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(08)60025-6.
  30. Tashkandi E. Consistency in color parameters of a commonly used shade guide. Saudi Dent J 2010;22(1):7–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2009.12.002.
  31. Brodbelt RH, O’Brien WJ, Fan PL, et al. Translucency of human dental enamel. J Dent Res 1981;60:1749–1753. DOI: 10.1177/00220345810600100401.
  32. Miller A, Long J, Cole J, et al. Shade selection and laboratory communication. Quintessence Int 1993;24:305–309. PMID: 8362042.
  33. Al-Nsour HF, Al-Zoubi TT, Al-Rimawi AS. Relationship between tooth value and skin color in patients visiting Royal Medical Services clinics of Jordan. Electron Physician 2018;10(3):6448–6453. DOI: 10.19082/6448.
  34. Sikri VK. Colour: Implications in dentistry. J Conserv Dent 2010;13(4):249–255. DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.73381.
  35. Agrawal VS, Kapoor S. Colour and shade management in esthetic dentistry 2013;3(3):120–127. DOI: 10.4103/2249-9725.123975.
  36. Demirel MG, Tuncdemir MT. Influence of age, gender, and educational background on tooth color. Niger J Clin Pract 2019;22(2):162–166. DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_442_18.
  37. Dilesh Pradhan, Lajana S, Junu L. Tooth shade and skin colour: a descriptive cross-sectional study. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2020; 58(223):144–147. DOI: 10.31729/jnma.4792.
  38. Hartmann R, Müller F. Clinical studies on the appearance of natural anterior teeth in young and old adults. Gerodontology 2004;21(1):10–16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2004.00009.x..
  39. Pustina-Krasniqi T, Xhajanka E, Ajeti N, et al. The relationship between tooth color, skin and eye color. Eur Oral Res 2018;52(1):45–49. DOI: 10.26650/eor.2018.05145.
  40. Greenwall L. Bleaching Techniques In Restorative Dentistry—An Illustrated guide. London: Martin Dunitz Ltd, 2001.
  41. Mayekar SM. Shades of a color illusion or reality? Dent Clin North Am 2001;45(1):155–172. PMID: 11210693.
  42. Tabatabaian F, Beyabanaki E, Alirezaei P, et al. Visual and digital tooth shade selection methods, related effective factors and conditions, and their accuracy and precision: a literature review. J Esthet Restor Dent 2021;33(8):1084–1104. DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12816.
  43. Borse S , Chaware SH. Tooth shade analysis and selection in prosthodontics: a systematic review and meta-analysis J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2020;20(2):131–140. DOI: 10.4103/jips.jips_399_19.
  44. Rutkunas V, Dirs ė J, Bilius V. Accuracy of an intraoral digital scanner in tooth color determination. J Prosthet Dent 2020;123:322–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2018.12.020.
  45. Yamanel K, Caglar A, Özcan M, et al. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010;22:379–388. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2010.00370.x.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.