The Effect of Different Finishing and Polishing Systems on Surface Properties of New Flowable Bulk-fill Resin Composite
Yara A Elgammal, Marwa M Temirek, Olfat E Hassanein, Monaliza M Abdelaziz
Food simulating liquids, Multiple-step polishing system, Surface gloss, Surface roughness and two-step polishing system
Citation Information :
Elgammal YA, Temirek MM, Hassanein OE, Abdelaziz MM. The Effect of Different Finishing and Polishing Systems on Surface Properties of New Flowable Bulk-fill Resin Composite. J Contemp Dent Pract 2023; 24 (8):587-594.
Aim: The purpose of this research was to explore how various finishing and polishing techniques affect the surface roughness (Ra) and gloss of flowable bulk-fill injectable resin composite utilized for posterior teeth restoration, following exposure to a range of food-simulating liquids (FSLs) over three months.
Materials and methods: This study comprised fifty-six disk specimens of G-aenial™ Bulk Injectable flowable resin composite which were created using a Teflon mold (10 × 4 mm). Two techniques of finishing and polishing (F/P) were employed: The two-step 3M™ Sof-Lex™ F/P spiral wheels system and the multiple-step 3M™ Sof-Lex™ XT finishing disks supplemented by the Ultradent Jiffy HiShine polisher cup system. The Ra and gloss of the prepared specimens were measured using an interference microscope system and Horiba gloss checker respectively, immediately post-finishing and polishing and then reassessed after three months in artificial saliva and Coca-Cola.
Results: The two-step system showed a statistically significant difference, exhibiting greater “surface roughness (Ra)” and lower “surface gloss (GU)” mean values compared to the multiple-step system under different storage conditions, particularly after 3 months of storage (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: The multiple-step polishing system improved the “Ra” and “GU” of resin composite, suggesting their suitability for posterior resin composite restorations. Acidic media had a deleterious impact on the “Ra” and “GU” of resin composite restoration.
Clinical significance: The quality of resin composite restorations can be significantly improved with the correct use of finishing and polishing systems, particularly in complex areas of posterior teeth restorations, leading to successful dental procedures.
Barakat O, Abbas M. Effect of different finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness and color changes of resin composites: An in vitro study. Egypt Dent J 2019;65(1):657–666. DOI:10.21608/EDJ.2019.72823.
Paolone G, Moratti E, Goracci C, et al. Effect of finishing systems on surface roughness and gloss of full-body bulk-fill resin composites. Materials (Basel) 2020;13(24):5657. DOI: 10.3390/ma13245657.
Alfawaz Y. Impact of polishing systems on the surface roughness and microhardness of nanocomposites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):647–651. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2100.
Sang EJ, Song JS, Chung SH, et al. Influence of a new polishing system on changes in gloss and surface roughness of resin composites after polishing and brushing. Dent Mater J 2021;40(3):727–735. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2020-207.
Camilotti V, Mendonça MJ, Dobrovolski M, et al. Impact of dietary acids on the surface roughness and morphology of composite resins. J Oral Sci 2021;63(1):18–21. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.19-0518.
Kumari RV, Nagaraj H, Siddaraju K, et al. Evaluation of the effect of surface polishing, oral beverages and food colorants on color stability and surface roughness of nanocomposite resins. J Int oral health 2015;7(7):63–70. PMID: 26229373.
Lassila L, Säilynoja E, Prinssi R, et al. The effect of polishing protocol on surface gloss of different restorative resin composites. Biomater Investig Dent 2020;7(1):1–8. DOI: 10.1080/26415275.2019.1708201.
St-Pierre L, Martel C, Crépeau H, et al. Influence of polishing systems on surface roughness of composite resins: Polishability of composite resins. Oper Dent 2019;44(3):E122–E132. DOI: 10.2341/17-140-L.
Aydın N, Karaoğlanoğlu S, Kılıçarslan MA, et al. Effect of wet and dry polishing conditions by two finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness and color changes of two composite resin restoratives: An in vitro comparative study. J Adv Oral Res 2022;13(1):127–134. DOI: 10.1177/23202068221084448.
Farzaneh F, Mohammadi-Bassir M, Rezvani MB, et al. Effect of chemical and mechanical degradation on surface roughness, topography, gloss, and polish retention of three composites polished with five polishing systems. Front Dent 2021;18(39):1–12. DOI: 10.18502/fid. v18i39.7608.
Degirmenci A, Pehlivan IE, Degirmenci BU. Effects of polishing procedures on optical parameters and surface roughness of composite resins with different viscosities. Dent Mater J 2023;42(2):199–210. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2022-178.
Chowdhury D, Mazumdar P, Desai P, et al. Comparative evaluation of surface roughness and color stability of nano hybrid composite resin after periodic exposure to tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola–An in vitro profilometric and image analysis study. J Conserv Dent 2020;23(4):395–401. DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_401_20.
Tosco V, Monterubbianesi R, Orilisi G, et al. Effect of four different finishing and polishing systems on resin composites: Roughness surface and gloss retention evaluations. Minerva Stomatol 2019;69(4):207–214. DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4970.19.04310-3.
Bajwa NK, Pathak A. Change in surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials after exposure to different immersion regimes in a cola drink. ISRN Dent 2014;33(2):1–6. DOI: 10.1155/2014/353926.
Khudhur HA, Bakr DK, Saleem SS, et al. Comparison of surface roughness of different bulk-fill composite materials using one-step polishing systems (An In-Vitro Study). J Hunan Univ Nat Sci 2022;49(1):120–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.55463/issn.1674-29188.8.131.52.
Khatua M, Majumdar TK, Mazumdar P, et al. Effect of immediate and delayed finishing and polishing procedure on Streptococcal mutans adhesion and micro-hardness of composite resin surface: An in-vitro study. Int Dent J Stud Res 2022;10(1):5–10. DOI: 10.18231/j.idjsr.2022.002.
Monterubbianesi R, Tosco V, Orilisi G, et al. Surface evaluations of a nanocomposite after different finishing and polishing systems for anterior and posterior restorations. Microsc Res Tech 2021;84(12):2922–2929. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.23850.
Afifi RHA, Aly SMH. Effect of wet and dry finishing and polishing on surface roughness and microhardness of bulkfill resin composites. Egypt Dent J 2019; 65(1):747–754. DOI: 10.21608/edj.2019.72851.
Kamel MJ, Abi-Elhassan MH, Abed YA. Effect of food simulating liquids on surface roughness and gloss retention of mono-step versus multiple-step polished resin composites. CDJ 2015;25(3):449–445. DOI: https://doi.org/617.67/CDJ.2015.106576.1873.
Jang JH, Kim HY, Shin SM, et al. Clinical effectiveness of different polishing systems and self-etch adhesives in class V composite resin restorations: Two-year randomized controlled clinical trial. Oper Dent 2017;42(1):19–29. DOI: 10.2341/16-104-C.
Da Costa JB, Ferracane JL, Amaya-Pajares S, et al. Visually acceptable gloss threshold for resin composite and polishing systems. J Am Dent Assoc 2021;152(5):385–392. DOI: 10.1016/j.adaj.2020.09.027.
Cook MP, Thomas K. Evaluation of gloss meters for measurement of moulded plastics. Polym Test 1990;9(4):233–244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0142-9418(90)90010-B.
Silikas N, Kavvadia K, Eliades G, et al. Surface characterization of modern resin composites: A multitechnique approach. Am J Dent 2005;18(2):95–100. PMID: 15973826.
Pala K, Tekce N, Tuncer S, et al. Evaluation of the surface hardness, roughness, gloss and color of composites after different finishing/polishing treatments and thermocycling using a multitechnique approach. Dent Mater J 2016;35(2):278–289. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2015-260.
Lai G, Zhao L, Wang J, et al. Surface properties and color stability of dental flowable composites influenced by simulated toothbrushing. Dent Mater J 2018;37(5):717–724. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2017-233.
EN ISO 2813. Paints and vanishes — Determination of gloss value at 20 degrees, 60 degrees and 85 degrees, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3403/30229692.
Rodrigues-Junior SA, Chemin P, Piaia PP, et al. Surface roughness and gloss of actual composites as polished with different polishing systems. Oper Dent 2015;40(4):418–429. DOI: 10.2341/14-014L.
Lopes IAD, Monteiro PJVC, Mendes JJB, et al. The effect of different finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness and gloss of two nanocomposites. Saudi Dent J 2018;30(3):197–207. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.04.003.
Soliman HAN, Elkholany NR, Hamama HH, et al. Effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of novel nanohybrid resin composites. Eur J Dent 2021;15(2):259–265. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718477.
Gömleksiz S, Gömleksiz O. The effect of contemporary finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of bulk fill resin composite and nanocomposites. J Esthet Restor Dent 2022;34(6):915–923. DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12874.
Szczepaniak ME, Krasowski M, Bołtacz-Rzepkowska E. The effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness of two resin composites — An in vitro study. Coatings 2022;12(7):916–929. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070916.
Kemaloglu H, Karacolak G, Turkun LS. Can reduced-step polishers be as effective as multiple-step polishers in enhancing surface smoothness?. J Esthet Restor Dent 2017;29(1):31–40. DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12233.
Khairy AA, El-Toukhy RI, Zaghlol N. Effect of finishing/polishing techniques on surface roughness of three different resin composite materials: A laborator study. Mansoura J Dent 2022;9(3):82–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/mjd.2022.259768.
Abdallah AM, Mehesen R. Effect of food simulating solutions on surface roughness of four restorative materials. Al-Azhar J Dent Sci 2022;25(1):23–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/ajdsm.2021.97689.1252.
Cabadag ÖG, Gönülol N. The effects of food-simulating liquids on surface roughness, surface hardness, and solubility of bulk-fill composites. J Adv Oral Res 2021;12(2):245–253. DOI: 10.1177/2320206820988451.
Hal HM, Ali AI, El-wassefy NA, et al. Effect of food simulating solvents on surface roughness and microhardness of bulk fill resin composites. Mansoura J Dent 2022;9(4):176–180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/mjd.2022.151667.1065.
Ozera EH, Pascon FM, Correr AB, et al. Color stability and gloss of esthetic restorative materials after chemical challenges. Braz Dent J 2019;30(1):52–57. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201902263.
El-Rashidy AA, Abdelraouf RM, Habib NA. Effect of two artificial aging protocols on color and gloss of single-shade versus multi-shade resin composites. BMC Oral Health 2022;22(1):321–332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02351-7.
Batista GR, Zanatta RF, Borges AB, et al. The effects of polishing techniques on surface roughness and gloss of different composites. Gen Dent 2021;69(5):46–51. PMID: 34424212.
Al-Saudi K, Badran ON, Mohamed S, et al. Artificial accelerated aging effects on the color and gloss stability of modern universal resin composites: An In-Vitro Study. Egypt Dent J 2022;68(3):2875–2886. DOI: 10.21608/EDJ.2022.131772.2063.