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VOLUME 25 , ISSUE 1 ( January, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Correlating Frictional Forces Generated by Different Bracket Types during Sliding and Surface Topography Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Profilometer

Anisa H AlBadr, Nabeel F Talic

Keywords : Brackets, Ceramic, Kinetic friction, Monocrystalline, Orthodontics, Polycrystalline, Static friction, Surface roughness

Citation Information : AlBadr AH, Talic NF. Correlating Frictional Forces Generated by Different Bracket Types during Sliding and Surface Topography Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Profilometer. J Contemp Dent Pract 2024; 25 (1):41-51.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3625

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-02-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: The study aims to correlate the frictional forces (FF) of four different types of commercially available ceramic brackets to their surface topography. Materials and methods: Two monocrystalline (MC) brackets (CLEAR™, Adanta, Germany; Inspire ICE™, Ormco, USA), one polycrystalline (PC) bracket (Symetri Clear™, Ormco, USA), one clear hybrid esthetic bracket (DISCREET™, Adanta, Germany), and a stainless-steel (SS) bracket (Victory™, 3M Unitek, USA) served as control. Both static friction (SF) and kinetic friction (KF) were recorded during sliding using an Instron universal machine in dry settings. The bracket slot surface topography was evaluated. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a profilometer machine were used for assessment before and after sliding. Results: Frictional forces values during sliding were as follows in descending order; Inspire ICE™, CLEAR™, DISCREET™, Symetri Clear™, and, lastly, Victory™. Also, DISCREET™ scored the highest in surface roughness (Sa) values followed by Symetri Clear™. None of the correlations were statistically significant. Conclusion: Frictional forces produced during sliding were not always directly related to surface roughness. Monocrystalline ceramic brackets appeared to have the greatest FF and a low surface roughness. Furthermore, DISCREET™ scored a very low frictional value comparable to metal brackets yet showed the highest surface roughness. Metal brackets exhibited the greatest surface smoothness before sliding and the least SF. Clinical significance: Predicting the FFs produced during sliding mechanics would help the practitioner while choosing the bracket system to be used, and while planning the treatment mechanics, how much force to deliver, and how much tooth movement to expect.

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