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VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 5 ( July, 2007 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Oral Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case without Lung Manifestations

Miguel Gustavo Setúbal Andrade, Alena Peixoto Medrado, Igor Costa de Brito, Silvia Regina de Almeida Reis

Citation Information : Andrade MG, Medrado AP, de Brito IC, de Almeida Reis SR. Oral Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case without Lung Manifestations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007; 8 (5):92-98.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-8-5-92

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-07-2007

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2007; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim

The aim of this article is to present a case of Paracoccidioidomycosis with involvement of the oral cavity but without pulmonary manifestations.

Background

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is an endemic disease representing a serious health problem for Latin American countries, especially Brazil. This infection primarily affects the lungs of adult men and is acquired through inhalation or accidental inoculation of the fungus. It can spread to other organs and tissues, mainly the oral cavity. Administration of antifungal medication always resolves the disease.

Report

A 58-year-old black male presented with three painless, ulcerated, mulberry-like granulomatous lesions located in the floor of the mouth, on the superior alveolar ridge, and on the hard palate, which had evolved over a period of two years. Facial asymmetry was observed due to edema in the lower lip and lymphadenopathy. He had smoked for more than six years but showed no evidence of lung alterations, productive cough, or fever. Panoramic radiography showed no signs of a bone lesion in the jaws. Both a radiograph and a CT scan of the thorax showed no areas of nodular infiltration. Fibrobronchoscopic examination of the entire respiratory tract was normal. Biopsies of the oral lesions were performed, and tissue sections exhibited oral mucosa coated with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with acanthosis and focal areas of exocytosis. The underlying connective tissue showed an intense lymphocytic and polymorphonuclear infiltrate in addition to multinuclear giant cells and coagulation necrosis. A special stain used for fungus (the Grocott-Gomori method) was positive. Pulmonary biopsy exhibited aerial spaces containing macrophages, dark granular hemossiderin, and absence of fungus. This was considered normal. In agreement with the recommendation of pneumologists 400 mg/day of ketoconazole was prescribed for the patient. After two months of treatment, even though the oral lesions had resolved completely, the therapy was maintained for six months more. One year after following treatment the patient was in good health and free of any signs of a recurrent infection.

Summary

Based on clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings the differential diagnosis included paracoccidioidomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Following clinical and biopsy examinations of the oral lesions and the lungs a final diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis was made. This is a prime example of oral manifestations of a systemic disease in which the dentist is the initial health care professional to evaluate the patient due to the location of the lesions.

Citation

Andrade MGS, Medrado AP, de Brito IC, de Almeida Reis SR. Oral Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case without Lung Manifestations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007 July;(8)5:092-098.


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