The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 6 ( September, 2007 ) > List of Articles


Risk Factors for Traumatic Dental Injuries in an Adolescent Male Population in India

Pavan Baldava, Nagaraj Anup

Citation Information : Baldava P, Anup N. Risk Factors for Traumatic Dental Injuries in an Adolescent Male Population in India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007; 8 (6):35-42.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-8-6-35

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-09-2007

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2007; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.



The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth and evaluate the role of anatomic risk factors in the occurrence of such injuries in a group with an assumed behavior predisposing them to trauma.

Methods and Materials

The study population consisted of 370 male enrollees of the National Cadet Corps (NCC) in India. Risk factors such as the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents, lip coverage, incisor overjet, and the cause and nature of trauma to anterior teeth were recorded. The Chi-square test was used for testing the association between these factors. Increasing overjet was further analyzed using chi-square for linear trends. Variables found significant were subjected to logistic regression.


A prevalence of 14.9% of traumatic injuries to anterior teeth was found in the study population with sports activities being the most common cause. Permanent maxillary central incisors were most commonly injured with injuries involving enamel and dentin being the most frequently observed. Increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage were significantly associated with the occurrence of trauma. With an odds ratio of 7.2 inadequate lip coverage was identified, using binary logistic regression, as the single most independent risk factor for the occurrence of traumatic injury to the maxillary anterior teeth.


Baldava P, Anup N. Risk Factors for Traumatic Dental Injuries in an Adolescent Male Population in India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007 September;(8)6:035-042.

PDF Share
  1. Oral health. Epidemiology. July 2001. Accessed November 2005. Available from:
  2. Epidemiology of dental trauma: A review of literature. Aust Dent J 2000;45(1):2-9.
  3. Anterior tooth trauma in eleven-year-old South African children. J Dent Child 1995;62:352-5.
  4. Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in Italian school children: Prevalence and risk factors. Endodon Dental Traumatol 1996;12:294-7.
  5. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 12 years in Jaragua do Sul, Brazil. Int Dent J 2000;50:87-92.
  6. An investigation of the association between overjet size, lip coverage and traumatic injury to maxillary incisors. Eur J Orthod 1995;17:513-7.
  7. Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth among school children in Malaysia. Dental Traumatol 2001;17:149-52.
  8. Traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Jordan. Community Dental Health 2003;20:89-93.
  9. Dental trauma and its association with anatomic, behavioral and social variables among fifth and sixth grade school children in Jerusalem. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005;33:174-80.
  10. Traumatic injuries to the incisors in children of South Kanara district. A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2002;20(3):107-15.
  11. Traumatic injury to maxillary incisor teeth in a group of South Wales School children. Endod Dent Traumatol 1990;6:260-4.
  12. Traumatic injuries to permanent teeth in Swedish children living in an urban area. Swed Dent J 1986;11 19-21.
  13. traumatic dental injuries in a sample of Dominican children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1981;9:193-7.
  14. Epidemiology of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of 9-12-year-old school children in Damascus, Syria. Endod Dent Traumatol 1999;15:117-23.
  15. Social deprivation and traumatic dental injuries among 14-year-old school children in Newham, London. Dent Traumatol 2001;17:17-21.
  16. Risk factors associated with incisor injury in elementary school children. Angle Orthodont 1996;66:425-32.
  17. Traumatized anterior teeth amongst high school students in Northern Sydney. Aust Dent J 1985;30(5):346-8.
  18. An investigation of dento-alveolar trauma and its treatment in an adolescent population. Part 1: the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the extent and adequacy of treatment received. British Dent J 1997;182:91-5.
  19. Dental trauma in children: a survey. Endodon Dent Traumatol 1991;7:212-3.
  20. Incidence of fractured anterior teeth as related to their protrusion. Angle Orthodontist 1959;29:128-31.
  21. Dental injuries in Copenhagen school children, school years 1967-72. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1974;2:231-45.
  22. Incidence of fractured anterior teeth and their correlation with malocclusion in children. J Indian Dent Assoc 1976;48(5):191-8.
  23. Some observations on the incidence and emergency treatment of fractured permanent anterior teeth of children. J Dent Res 1954;33:730.
  24. Incidence of orofacial injuries in high school sports. J Public Health Dent 1998; 58:288-93.
  25. Incidence of dental trauma in the western Australian school dental service. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988;16:294-8.
  26. Etiological and predisposing factors related to traumatic injuries to permanent teeth. Swed Dent J 1993;17(5):183-90.
  27. Factors affecting coronal fracture of anterior teeth in north Jordanian children. Dent Traumatol 2005;21(1):26-8.
  28. Relation of traumatized permanent anterior teeth to occlusion and lip condition. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1980;8:381-4.
  29. Some factors predisposing to injuries of permanent incisors in school children. Br Dent J 1973;134:328-32.
  30. Oral trauma in adolescent atheletes: a study of mouth protectors. Pediatr Dent 1989;11:209-13.
  31. The relationship between traumatic dental injuries and adolescent's development along the life course. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31:306-13.
  32. The relationship between problem behavior and traumatic dental injury amongst children aged 7-15-years old. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:392-6.
  33. Dental and oral trauma and mouthguard use during sport activities in Israel. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;19:237-42.
  34. Sport-related injury and mouthguard use among Sheffield school children. Community Dent Health 1997;14:25-30.
  35. Dent Traumatol 2002;18:144-7.
  36. Traumatic injuries to permanent incisors. Endod Dent traumatol 1993;9:61-4.
  37. Oral health surveys. Basic methods. 4th ed. 1999. World health organization. Geneva. p16-20.
  38. Dentofacial anomalies. Oral health assessment form. Oral health surveys. Basic methods. 4th ed. 1999. World health organization. Geneva. P 48-9.
  39. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale-a revision. Indian J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;70(3):273-4.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.